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Hisayuki Kudo and Takeo Harada

In higher plants, in addition to carbohydrates, amino acids, and other nutrients, specific RNA molecules and some proteins are transported in the phloem ( Wu et al., 2006 ). Ruiz-Medrano et al. (1999) identified several mRNA molecules in the

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Misaki Ishibashi, Takeshi Nabe, Yoko Nitta, and Yuichi Uno

analysis, has been greatly accelerated by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Selection of suitable methods for isolating and purifying RNA is thus dependent on the type of downstream assay(s) that will

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James M. Crosslin

time in Michigan ( Kirk et al., 2008 ), Wisconsin, and Minnesota ( Gudmestad et al., 2008 ). The tobravirus genome consists of two positive sense RNA molecules. The larger RNA 1 contains four open reading frames (ORF), including those for the RNA

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He Li, Cheng-Jiang Ruan, Li Wang, Jian Ding, and Xing-Jun Tian

, transcriptome datasets have become valuable resources for SSR discovery, more and more RNA-Seq SSRs are developed to investigate the genetic relationships among species and subspecies, as well as the genetic structure of populations ( Liu et al., 2015 ; Zhang

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Shin Je Kim, Kyung-Hee Paek, and Byung-Dong Kim

CMV 117N satellite RNA. We thank J.R. Liu for his critical reading of this manuscript.. Sang-Jik Lee's technical assistance is greatly appreciated. This work was supported in part by a grant (G70300) to K.-H. Pack in aid for scientific research from

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Takanori Takeuchi, Miwako Cecile Matsushita, Soichiro Nishiyama, Hisayo Yamane, Kiyoshi Banno, and Ryutaro Tao

out. A transcriptome analysis using the new apple reference genome may enable more accurate mapping, ultimately resulting in a more precise identification of DEGs and gene ontology (GO) analysis. However, RNA-seq studies focused on apple dormancy have

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Zhigang Ouyang, Huihui Duan, Lanfang Mi, Wei Hu, Jianmei Chen, Xingtao Li, and Balian Zhong

Pre–messenger RNA (mRNA), synthesized from a DNA template in the cell nucleus by transcription, is modified by several processes to become a mature functional mRNA, which can be subsequently translated ( Herzel and Neugebauer, 2015 ). In eukaryotic

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Jean-Michel Hily, Michel Ravelonandro, Vern Damsteegt, Carole Bassett, Cesar Petri, Zongrang Liu, and Ralph Scorza

phenotype. These studies have provided evidence that PDR in many cases is based on RNA silencing, named posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants and RNA interference (RNAi) in animal systems ( Hannon, 2002 ; Kooter et al., 1999 ; Matzke et al

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Angela R. Davis, Amnon Levi, Sungil Kim, Stephen R. King, and Alvaro Hernandez

RNA isolation from ripe fruit can be complicated by high concentrations of sugar and water. These sugars interfere with RNA extraction often resulting in low RNA quality and quantities, and high water concentrations dilute the RNA, making isolation difficult. We report a simple but novel method by which the majority of the excess sugar and water in mature fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], and muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) can be easily removed from tissue before RNA extraction. This method produced quality RNA in a shorter time than the currently accepted method for fruit tissue RNA isolation and does not require liquid nitrogen or a freeze dryer.

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Amnon Levi, Glenn A. Galau, and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

A simple and efficient protocol is reported for the isolation of RNA from embryos and leaves of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. The method relies on suppression of the polyphenols from interaction with the RNA and their rapid removal from the homogenate by chloroform extraction. This method produced abundant amounts of high-quality RNA. This protocol is likely to be useful for Juglandaceous species and other recalcitrant plants with high levels of phenolic compounds.