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Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu, Michael V. Mickelbart and Douglass F. Jacobs

.F. Jacobs, D.F. 2008 Subirrigation of Quercus rubra seedlings: Nursery stock quality, media chemistry, and early field performance HortScience 43 2179 2185 Burdett, A.N. 1990 Physiological process in plantation establishment and development of

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Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu and Douglass F. Jacobs

. Plant Physiol. 17 503 515 Davis, A.S. Jacobs, D.F. Overton, R.P. Dumroese, R.K. 2008 Influence of irrigation method and container type on Quercus rubra seedling growth and media electrical

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K. Francis Salifu, Michael A. Nicodemus, Douglass F. Jacobs and Anthony S. Davis

We evaluated suitability of chemical indices of three media formulations or substrates (A, B, and C) consisting of composted pine bark, coconut coir pith, sphagnum peatmoss, processed bark ash, and perlite in varied proportions for growing northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings. These substrates were ranked according to their ability to promote seedling growth. The low-yielding substrate (A) was devoid of pine bark and perlite and the medium-yielding substrate (B) contained no peatmoss or processed bark ash. The high-yielding substrate (C) contained all components. Additionally, we tested plant response to high nitrogen (N) fertilization on each substrate. Media EC, pH, and total dissolved solids measured at transplanting explained 68%, 43%, and 66%, respectively, of the variation in plant dry weight and 39%, 54%, and 46%, respectively, of the variation in shoot height. Vector diagnosis effectively ranked nutritional limitations on seedling growth as N > P > K. High N fertilization highlighted element deficiency in seedlings grown on substrate A, but resulted in element toxicity and antagonistic interactions in plants established on substrates B and C, respectively.

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Drew C. Zwart and Soo-Hyung Kim

temperature and average relative humidity maintained at 20.7 °C and 53.09%, respectively, until harvest 108 d post-inoculation. Maple treatment groups each consisted of 20 seedlings, randomly arranged on adjacent greenhouse tables. Red oak ( Quercus rubra

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Jayesh B. Samtani, John B. Masiunas and James E. Appleby

acetochlor + atrazine or s-metolachlor at the leaf unfolding stage. This article investigates more chloroacetanilide herbicides; determines if atrazine contributes to leaf tatters injury; and compares white and northern red oak injury ( Quercus rubra L

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Benjamin L. Green, Richard W. Harper and Daniel A. Lass

Urban foresters must be able to accurately assess costs associated with planting trees in the built environment, especially since resources to perform community forest management are limited. Red oak (Quercus rubra) and swamp white oak (Q. bicolor) (n = 48) that were produced using four different nursery production systems—balled and burlapped (BNB), bare root (BR), pot-in-pot container grown (PIP), and in-ground fabric (IGF)—were evaluated to determine costs of planting in the urban environment. Costs associated with digging holes, moving the trees to the holes, and planting the trees were combined to determine the mean cost per tree: BNB trees cost $11.01 to plant, on average, which was significantly greater than PIP ($6.52), IGF ($5.38), and BR ($4.38) trees. Mean costs for BR trees were significantly lower than all other types of trees; IGF trees were less expensive to plant (by $1.14) than PIP trees, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.058). Probabilities that cost per tree are less than specific values also are calculated. For example, the probabilities that IGF and BR can be planted for less than $8.00 per tree are 1.00. The probability that a PIP can be planted for less than $8.00 is 0.86, whereas the probability for a BNB tree is just 0.01. This study demonstrates that the cost of planting urban trees may be affected significantly in accordance with their respective nursery production method.

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Alison A. Stoven, Hannah M. Mathers and Daniel K. Struve

Department of Agriculture. Species used in this study: Acer xfreemanii `Jeffersred' (Autumn Blaze® maple), Cercis canadensis L. (Eastern redbud), Malus `Prairifire' (Prairifire crabapple), Quercus rubra L. (Northern red oak)

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Taryn L. Bauerle and Michela Centinari

this study: Acer rubrum L. ‘Franksred’ ( Acer ), Carpinus betula L. ‘Columnaris’ ( Carpinus ), Gleditsia tricanthos L. var. inermis ‘Skycole’ ( Gleditsia ), and Quercus rubra L.‘Rubrum’ ( Quercus ). Three 2-year-old liner replicate trees (n

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Rico A. González, Daniel K. Struve and Larry C. Brown

An irrigation control system has been developed and used to estimate evapotranspiration of contamer-grown plants by monitoring randomly selected plants within a container block and watering on an “as needed” basis. Sensor reliability and operational ease allows application of the system in a wide variety of field conditions. First-year tests, using red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings, showed a reduction of 95% or better in both total irrigation and leachate rates with the computer-controlled treatment relative to a manually controlled, drip irrigation treatment without reducing plant growth.

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V.M. Gingas

Partially expanded male catkins at the pre-pollen shedding stage of Quercus rubra L. and Quercus bicolor Willd. were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BA or 2,4D Explants on 2,4D produced a yellow embryogenic callus, seeming to originate from the pedicels. Subsequent transfers to BA and then, MS without growth regulators, resulted in callus proliferation. After ten weeks in culture, white embryoids developed from the callus of Q. bicolor. Separated and individually cultured embryoids underwent direct, repetitive embryogenesis. Upon transfer to ½-strength MS, embryoid germination and plant regeneration occurred, Callus of Q. rubra degenerated after five months in culture, failing to produce embryogenic structures.