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Todd P. West, Gregory Morgenson, Larry Chaput, and Dale E. Herman

excellent choice for an evergreen specimen planting in low-input landscapes without supplemental irrigation. Pinus cembra is an evergreen coniferous woody tree in the family Pinaceae within the subgenus Strobus Lemmon, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, and

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D. Bradley Rowe, Frank A. Blazich, and Robert J. Weir

Hedged stock plants of four full-sib families [27-2 × 27-5, 27-3 × 27-1, 27-2 × 27-1, and 27-6 × 27-1 (designated B, G, R, and W)] of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were fertilized daily with a complete nutrient solution containing N at 10, 25, 40, 55, or 70 mg·L–1. In May, terminal softwood stem cuttings were taken and placed under intermittent mist. Families were combined to form composite poor-rooting (BR) and good-rooting (GW) families. At 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sticking, cuttings were evaluated for rooting and analyzed for mineral nutrient and carbohydrate content. Percent rooting by week 12 for cuttings from stock plants receiving N between 25 to 70 mg·L–1 was 28% to 33%, whereas significantly fewer (17%) cuttings from plants receiving 10 mg·L–1 had rooted. By week 12, 98% of cuttings taken from stock plants receiving N at 10 mg·L–1 were alive, while significantly fewer (81% and 82%) of the more succulent cuttings receiving 55 and 70 mg·L–1, respectively, had survived. Nearly all increases in cutting height occurred within the first 3 weeks. In contrast, top dry weight increased steadily throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in rooting between the two composite families until week 12, when 32% of cuttings from family GW had rooted compared with 24% for family BR. Survival of cuttings was greater for the poor-rooting family (BR) (94%) than for the good-rooting family (GW) (82%) after 12 weeks. Levels of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) and individual soluble sugars were initially higher in cuttings taken from stock plants that received higher rates of N, whereas the reverse was true for starch content. With the exception of sucrose, content of TNC and soluble carbohydrates generally increased over time. Starch was nearly depleted by week 3, but had increased by weeks 6 and 9. No correlation was found between TNC: N ratios and rooting percentage. Family GW contained greater quantities of myo-inositol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), and TNC than did family BR. Mineral nutrient content was generally greater in cuttings taken from stock plants that received higher rates of N; these cuttings also maintained higher levels throughout the 12-week rooting period. As with the soluble carbohydrates, the good-rooting composite family (GW) contained greater amounts of all mineral nutrients than did the poor-rooting family BR.

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Grant Jones*, Bert Cregg, and Katrina Schneller

The genus Abies is a member of the family Pinaceae and consists of approximately 55 species found mainly in upper latitudes or higher elevations in the northern hemisphere. Firs generally prefer cool, well-drained sites with acidic soil. Fir trees are occasionally used as landscape trees but are more commonly grown as Christmas trees. Recently, the Michigan State Univ. Forestry Dept. and the Michigan Christmas tree industry initiated a field test of exotic firs (Abies sp.) for potential use as Christmas trees. In the present study we expanded the evaluation of these exotic fir species to include their suitability as landscape trees and to characterize their tolerance to various environmental stresses. We compared foliar nutrition, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and shoot morphology of 23 Abies species and hybrids planted at three horticultural research stations in Michigan. Foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), boron (B), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were correlated (P < 0.05) with soil pH. Species and hybrids varied (P <0.05) in maximum photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, chlorophyll fluorescence, and the ratio of total needle area to projected needle area. We will discuss the significance of these traits in relation to selecting trees adapted for use in the Midwestern landscape.

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Jeong-Ho Lee, Sugwang Lee, and Yong-Hee Yu

The evergreen Korean black pine ( Pinus thunbergii L., Pinaceae) is distributed in hardiness zones 5–10 ( Magarey et al., 2008 ). Black pine is a garden and bonsai tree in Korea and Japan, as it can be trained and has many latent buds ( Lee, 1999

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Myounghai Kwak, Jeong-Ki Hong, Eun Sil Lee, Byoung Yoon Lee, Min Hwan Suh, and Bert Cregg

-ratio test between the likelihood of the data obtained by estimated haplotype frequencies, assuming linkage equilibrium and the likelihood of the data assuming LD ( Excoffier and Slatkin, 1998 ; Excoffier et al., 2005 ). In Pinaceae, the mitochondrial genome

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Jeong-Ho Lee

The Japanese black pine ( Pinus thunbergii L., Pinaceae) is prized in bonsai, topiary, and as an ornamental and garden plant. It is found in hardiness zones 5 to 10. It is a garden tree in Korea and Japan and also used as a bonsai because it can be

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Xiuli Shen and Myeong-Je Cho

Sugar pine ( Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), a gymnosperm belonging to the family of Pinaceae prized for its economic and ecological value, is one of the most valuable softwood forest plant species in the western United States. Native to the region from

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, and Vicki Schlegel

(pinaceae family), which includes more than 100 species, distributed mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Ponderosa pine is an important source for various products ( Barbour et al., 2008 ), whereas the pine forests provide an important wildlife habitat

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Justin A. Porter, Hazel Y. Wetzstein, David Berle, Phillip A. Wadl, and Robert N. Trigiano

Oecologia 94 446 450 Lee, S.-W. Ledig, F.T. Johnson, D.R. 2002 Genetic variation at allozyme and RAPD markers in Pinus longaeva (Pinaceae) of the White Mountains, California Amer. J. Bot. 89 566 577 Li, X.J. Yang, H.L. Liu, J. 2008 Genetic variation within

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Mingyuan Xu, Yingwei Wang, Qianbo Wang, Shenglei Guo, Yang Liu, Jia Liu, Zhonghua Tang, and Zhenyue Wang

(Pinaceae) to Pristiphora abietina (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Can. Entomol. 131 3 2202 2208 Sun, H. Liu, J. Zhang, A. Zhang, Y. Meng, X. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. 2016 Characterization of the multiple components of Acanthopanax senticosus stem by ultra