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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, and Ingram McCall

: flurprimidol (0.38%) at 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg·L −1 ; or paclobutrazol (Piccolo; Fine America, Walnut Creek, Calif.) at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg·L −1 . The substrate drench treatments were applied when plant shoots were 2.5 to 5 cm long on 18 Apr

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Alicain S. Carlson, John M. Dole, and Brian E. Whipker

, Marysville, OH), or paclobutrazol (Piccolo; Fine Americas, Walnut Creek, CA) at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/pot for flurprimidol and uniconazole and 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/pot for paclobutrazol. This resulted in a 3 × 5 factorial

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, and Ingram McCall

Eight experiments were conducted to develop height control protocols for greenhouse-forced hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs. `Pink Pearl' hyacinth bulbs were treated with flurprimidol preplant bulb soaks to determine optimal timing of treatment, soak duration, quantity of bulbs that could be treated before the solution lost efficacy, bulb location of solution uptake, and if higher concentrations of flurprimidol can be used to overcome stretch that occurs with extended cold treatment. No difference in height control occurred when bulbs were soaked in flurprimidol the day of, 1 day before, or 7 days before potting; therefore, growers can treat bulbs up to 1 week before potting with no difference in height control. All preplant bulb soak durations of 1, 5, 10, 20, or 40 min controlled plant height. Any soak durations ≥1.3 min resulted in similar height control, which would provide growers with a flexible time frame of 2 to 40 min in which to soak the bulbs. When 1 L of 20 mg·L-1 flurprimidol solution was used repeatedly over 20 batches of five bulbs, solution efficacy was similar from the first batch to the last batch, indicating the soak solution of flurprimidol can be used repeatedly without loss of efficacy. Soak solution temperature was also tested to determine its effect on flurprimidol and paclobutrazol uptake. Temperature of the soak solution (8, 16, or 24 °C) had no effect on flurprimidol and only at a temperature of 8 °C was the efficacy of paclobutrazol lower. Postharvest heights of `Pink Pearl' hyacinths were similar whether only the top, bottom, or the entire bulb was soaked. Control provided by flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, or uniconazole preplant bulb soaks varied among the three hyacinth cultivars Delft Blue, Jan Bos, and Pink Pearl, so growers will have to conduct their own trials to determine optimal cultivar response to preplant bulb soaks. Also, `Pacino' sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) were treated with residual soak solution of flurprimidol to determine if substrate drenches could be used as a disposal method. Fresh and residual solutions of flurprimidol (1.18, 2.37, or 4.73 mg/pot a.i.) applied to `Pacino' sunflowers were similar in their efficacy of controlling height, which would enable growers to avoid disposal problems of residual soak solutions.

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall, and John M. Dole

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on `Tete a Tete', `Dutch Master', and `Sweetness' narcissus (Narcissus pseudonarcissus). Ethephon foliar sprays (500 to 2500 mg·L-1) and substrate drenches of flurprimidol and paclobutrazol (0.25 to 4 mg/pot a.i.) did not control height during greenhouse forcing of `Tete a Tete' at any concentration trialed. Stem stretch was controlled during postharvest evaluation with ethephon foliar sprays ≥1000 mg·L-1, flurprimidol substrate drenches ≥0.5 mg/pot a.i., and paclobutrazol substrate drenches of 4 mg/pot a.i. A second experiment investigated preplant bulb soaks of flurprimidol (10 to 40 mg·L-1) applied to `Dutch Master' and `Tete a Tete' narcissus bulbs. Flurprimidol preplant bulb soaks controlled postharvest stretch on `Tete a Tete' and `Dutch Master' at concentrations ≥15 and ≥10 mg·L-1, respectively. A third experiment was conducted with paclobutrazol (75 to 375 mg·L-1) on `Tete a Tete' and `Dutch Master' and three concentrations of flurprimidol on `Sweetness' to determine optimal soak recommendations. Paclobutrazol preplant bulb soaks ≥75 mg·L-1 controlled postharvest stretch of `Tete a Tete' and `Dutch Master', while 37.5 mg·L-1 of flurprimidol controlled postharvest stretch of `Sweetness'. Based on the results of these experiments, growers can now select a PGR to help control excessive plant growth.

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Fernando de la Riva, Pilar Carolina Mazuela, Juan Eugenio Álvaro, and Miguel Urrestarazu

cultivars were: Mariachi Blue, Mariachi Green, Mariachi Blue Picotte, Mariachi Pink, Rosita White, and Piccolo White 1. The selection of these cultivars and crop dates were under commercial consideration from Sakata Ornamental Seeds, Ltd. (Valencia, Spain

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Wook Oh*, In Hye Cheon, and Ki Sun Kim

This research was conducted to investigate the growth and flowering responses of Cyclamen persicum Mill. `Piccolo' to temperature and photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF), and to obtain fundamental data for production of good quality pot plant. Cyclamen plants with 10 fully unfolded leaves were grown in growth chambers maintained at three day/night temperatures [20/10 (LT), 25/15 (MT), and 30/20 °C (HT)] combined with three PPF [250 (LF), 350 (MF), and 650 (HF) μmol·m-2·s-1] under 14 h-photoperiod. After 3 months, the higher the temperature was, the greater plant width was. It was the greatest under MT/MF and HT/MF. The number of leaves was greater with increasing temperature and PPF. Petiole length, leaf size, and fresh weight were higher with increase in temperature but decrease in PPF. Days to flowering were lower in MT/MF and MT/HF, but higher under LT regardless of PPF. The number of flowers was the highest under MT/MF and MT/HF, and higher under MF in each temperature treatment. Flowering period was longer in LT and MT compared with HT. Most leaves of plants grown under HT curled upward because of boron deficiency induced by higher temperature and lower humidity. Chlorophyll content was higher in medium and low temperature, except LT/HF. The lower side of leaf in low temperature was more reddish compared to that in higher temperature due to some pigments considered as anthocyanin. Photosynthesis was the highest in MT/MF, but low in MT/HF and LT/HF in accordance with the chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) which was lower under the same environment. These results indicate that 25/15°C and 350 μmol·m-2·s-1 yielded the best pot cyclamen in this study.

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Fan Cao, Cong Guo, Ling Wu, Xin Huang, Qiuxia Xu, and Yujuan Li

is produced and the anthocyanin from purple-leaf plum has been extracted have been conducted ( Liu et al., 2019 ; Piccolo et al., 2020 ; Vangelisti et al., 2020 ). Origin Our research team began to introduce and breed different cultivars of

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Daren S. Mueller, Mark L. Gleason, Nicholas P. Howell, and Edward M. Moran

cultivars (Les Sjulin, Winter Sunset, Piccolo Pete, Pearlie Mae, Earthsong, Honeysweet, Aunt Honey, and Carefree Beauty) had AUDPC values that were not significantly different from that of ‘Baby Love’ in 2005. In 2006, ‘Raven’ had an AUDPC value of 5107 and

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Timothy K. Hartz and Thomas G. Bottoms

of soil structure ( Piccolo and Mbagwu, 1990 ) and increased cation exchange ( Allison, 1973 ). Root growth enhancement has been attributed to improved soil structure, stimulation of soil microflora, and auxin-like effects ( Chen and Aviad, 1990

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Christopher J. Currey, Nicholas J. Flax, and Kellie J. Walters

)], paclobutrazol [10, 20, or 40 mg·L −1 (Piccolo; Fine Americas)], or uniconazole [5, 10, or 20 mg·L −1 (Concise; Fine Americas)] applied at a rate of 2 qt/100 ft 2 with a hand sprayer. Following PGR applications, all treated plants for a single cultivar were