New Mexico ( Leonian, 1922 ). This pathogen can completely devastate a field of chile peppers ( Sanogo and Carpenter, 2006 ). The pathogen causes multiple disease syndromes such as phytophthora root rot, fruit rot, stem blight, and foliar blight ( Sy
Ariadna Monroy-Barbosa and Paul W. Bosland
John R. Yeo, Jerry E. Weiland, Dan M. Sullivan and David R. Bryla
P. cinnamomi has been shown to be more severe when soil temperature exceeds 25 °C ( Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 ). Therefore, it is possible that weed mat may increase the incidence of phytophthora root rot in blueberry. The zoospore infection cycle of
Amal de Silva, Keith Patterson, Craig Rothrock and Ron McNew
Phytophthora root rot is a severe disease on blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) in poorly drained soils. Little is known about how mulching and frequent waterlogging affect disease severity in blueberries. Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands was grown on rice hulls, which were incorporated into the soil at the rate of 10% (v:v). Waterlogging conditions were imposed for 48 hours 1 week after planting on mulched and nonmulched blueberry plants at weekly, biweekly, and monthly intervals for a total of 3 months. Control plants were not subjected to flooding. The severity of Phytophthora root rot increased with time. Significant linear relationships were found between flooding interval and disease severity rating of shoot, percentage of root infection, and shoot and root dry weights of plants. Disease symptoms were minimal in control plants, but shoot disease rating and percentage of root infection were high in mulched and nonmulched plants that were flooded every week. Shoot and root dry weights were higher in 1997 than in 1996. In 1996, mulched plants had higher shoot dry weights than did nonmulched plants. Disease incidence was higher with weekly and biweekly flooding than with monthly or no flooding. However, mulching did not affect root infection.
John R. Yeo, Jerry E. Weiland, Dan M. Sullivan and David R. Bryla
planting beds, tile drains, and proper irrigation management can help prevent phytophthora root rot ( Brannen et al., 2009 ; Bryla and Linderman, 2007 ; Sterne, 1982 ). However, genetic resistance is currently the most effective means to control the
Lisa M. Oelke, Paul W. Bosland and Robert Steiner
Despite extensive breeding efforts, no pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) cultivars with universal resistance to phytophthora root rot and foliar blight (Phytophthora capsici Leon) have been commercially released. A reason for this limitation may be that physiological races exist within P. capsici, the causal agent of phytophthora root rot and phytophthora foliar blight. Physiological races are classified by the pathogen's reactions to a set of cultivars (host differential). In this study, 18 varieties of peppers were inoculated with 10 isolates of P. capsici for phytophthora root rot, and four isolates of P. capsici for phytophthora foliar blight. The isolates originated from pepper plants growing in New Mexico, New Jersey, Italy, Korea, and Turkey. For phytophthora root rot, nine of the 10 isolates were identified as different physiological races. The four isolates used in the phytophthora foliar blight study were all determined to be different races. The identification of physiological races within P. capsici has significant implication in breeding for phytophthora root rot and phytophthora foliar blight resistance.
Sieglinde Snapp and Carol Shennan
Tomato Fruit quality can be improved by the use of moderately saline irrigation water. However, decreased fruit yields may occur if the saline treatment is initiated early in plant development or the salt concentration is high. Another concern with the use of saline irrigation water is increased plant susceptibility to disease. Two processing tomato cultivars were grown under low salt (ECa=1.1 ds/m), medium salt (ECa=2.8 ds/m) and high salt (ECa=4.6 ds/m) regimes, and in the presence and absence of Phytophthora parasitica, the casual agent of Phytophthora root rot. Salinity increased Phytophthora root rot severity in UC82B, the susceptible cultivar, but had a limited effect on CX8303, a cultivar known to have a measure of resistance to Phytophthora root rot. Fruit acidity and percent total soluble solids were enhanced in both cultivars by increasing salinity. Infection by P. parasitica increased acidity and soluble solids in UC82B fruit grown under high salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in tomato fruit increased in a manner proportionate to the salt treatment applied; however, in the absence of disease, fruit Na+ and Cllevels were markedly lower compared to other tissues in the plant, The presence of salt-enhanced Phytophthora root rot in UC82B increased fruit Na+ concentration by almost 100%. Fruit Ca2+ and K+ levels, in contrast, declined moderately with increasing salinity and were not affected by disease.
M.A. Ellis and S.A. Miller
A commercially available serological assay kit (flow-through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Phytophthora F kit) was compared to a culture-plate method for detecting Phytophthora spp. in apparently diseased (phytophthora root rot) and apparently healthy red raspberry (Rubus idaeus subsp. strigosus Michx.) plants. During 4 years of testing, 46 tests were conducted on apparently diseased roots. All diseased plants gave a strong positive reaction, a result indicating that Phytophthora spp. were present. Of the 46 plants that tested positive, Phytophthora spp. were recovered from all but one using a selective medium for Phytophthora and the culture-plate method. When the same test was conducted on 27 apparently healthy plants, all had a negative reaction for the presence of Phytophthora except one sample, which had a slight positive reaction. No Phytophthora spp. were isolated from any apparently healthy plants. Our results indicate that the serological test kit enables rapid, dependable, on-site diagnosis of raspberry phytophthora root rot.
B.H. Ownley and D.M. Benson
Wheat bran inoculum of Penicillium janthinellum (Biourge) [1% w/w added to pine bark (PB) container medium] suppressed “`root rot of azalea (Rhododendron obtusum Planch.) caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands in greenhouse experiments. Shoot fresh weight was increased by 31% to 91% and mortality reduced by 30% to 50% for azaleas planted in natural (nonsterile) PB amended with P. janthinellum compared with the infested control. The population densities of P. janthinellum exceeded 105 to 106 cfu/g dry PB within 7 days and remained stable over time. Penicillium janthinellum, a natural colonizer of PB container media, shows potential as a biological control of phytophthora root rot of azalea.
Jeremy A. Pattison*, Suren K. Samuelian and Courtney A. Weber
RAPD and AFLP markers were first used to construct a molecular map in a BC1 red raspberry population consisting of 70 individuals that segregated for Phytophthora root rot resistance. RAPD markers linked to root rot resistance were identified by bulk segregant analysis and through QTL anlaysis. Two common genomic regions were identified by both analyses and were estimated to explain ≈50% of the phenotypic variation. RAPD markers flanking the QTL were cloned and made into sequence specific markers for potential use in marker assisted selection. In addition to the linked markers, RAPDs spread throughout the linkage map were also sequenced and developed into either SCARs, CAPs, or codominant SSRs. Attempts were made to locate red raspberry resistance gene analogs using degenerate primers designed on conserved regions encoding known resistance genes. Results on the type and map position of identified RGA's and selection efficiency of linked markers analyzed in red raspberry cultivars of characterized root rot resistance will be discussed.
Cuttings of Dendranthema ×grandiflorum `Paragon' were used as a model system to assess the effects of root heating on disease severity. Roots were exposed to single episodes of heat stress, after which they were inoculated with zoospores of Phytophthora cryptogea Pethyb. & Laff. Root damage resulting from heat stress, or heat stress plus Phytophthora, was quantified 5 to 7 days after treatment. Roots of hydroponically grown plants, immersed for 30 min in aerated, temperature-controlled nutrient solutions, were severely damaged at 45C or above. Relatively little phytophthora root rot developed on inoculated plants exposed to 25 or 35C, but infection was severe in roots heated to 40C. Plants grown in potting mix were exposed to heat stress by plastic-wrapping the containers in which they were growing and placing them in heated water baths until roots achieved desired temperatures for 30 min. This system heated roots more slowly than in the hydroponic experiments, and 45 and 50C were less damaging. The amount of Phytophthora-induced root damage was insignificant in containerized plants heated to 25 or 35C, but was highly significant in those heated to 40C or higher. In field experiments, plants were positioned so their containers were either fulIy exposed to the late afternoon sun or heavily shaded to prevent sun exposure. The root zones of sun-exposed pots heated to 45 to 47C, while those of shaded pots never exceeded 34 to 36C. There was a large, highly significant increase in phytophthora root rot severity in the sun-exposed pots compared to shaded plants. These experiments showed that temperatures of 40C or higher, which commonly occur in container-grown plants exposed to solar radiation, can predispose chrysanthemum roots to severe Phytophthora infection.