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Chun-Ho Pak and Chiwon W. Lee

Foliar micronutrient toxicity symptoms of Petunia hybrida `Ultra Crimson Star' were induced by elevated levels (from 0.25 to 6 mM) of boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) in the nutrient solution. Foliar toxicity symptoms of most micronutrients (except Fe) were characterized by leaf yellowing, interveinal chlorosis, and marginal necrosis. Mo toxicity was most severe. Leaf abnormality was not induced by Fe in the concentration range tested. Visible foliar toxicity symptoms developed when nutrient solution contained 5.4, 32, 28, 24, and 16 mg· liter-1, respectively, of B, Cu, Mn, Mo and Zn. Biomass yield was reduced when the fertilizer solution contained (in mg· liter-1): 22 B, 64 Cu, 335 Fe, 28 Mn, 24 Mo, and 33 Zn.

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Kathryn M. Santos, Paul R. Fisher and William R. Argo

supply during three rooting phases in propagation of Petunia × hybrida ‘Supertunia Royal Velvet’ and ‘Supertunia Priscilla’ cuttings. Materials and Methods Aeroponics design. An aeroponics system was developed with the capability to apply

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Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Jeff L. Sibley, Cheryl R. Boyer and Anthony L. Witcher

flats (PLG288O; ITML Horticultural Products Inc.) of either marigold ( Tagetes patula ‘Hero Spry’; 4 to 5 weeks from sowing) or petunia ( Petunia × hybrida ‘Dreams Purple’ 6 to 7 weeks from sowing) were planted into each container. Containers were

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Andrew K. Koeser, Sarah T. Lovell, Aaron C. Petri, Robin G. Brumfield and J. Ryan Stewart

inputs and impacts of a short-rotation greenhouse crop, Petunia × hybrida (petunia), from initial propagation to plant and container delivery at a retail center. This study is the first to establish a baseline, cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of

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Jonathan M. Frantz and Peter Ling

producing high-quality crops. Materials and Methods Plant material. Petunia × hybrida seeds (cv. Madness white) were sown in a 288-cell seedling tray (each cell had 14 cm 3 root volume) filled with a commercial sphagnum–peat-based germination mix

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Robin G. Brumfield, Laura B. Kenny, Alyssa J. DeVincentis, Andrew K. Koeser, Sven Verlinden, A.J. Both, Guihong Bi, Sarah T. Lovell and J. Ryan Stewart

the impact of the container type on the economic and social costs of growing Petunia × hybrida in a large greenhouse production system. One could explore the impacts of other factors such as transportation costs and the world peat market on these

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Robert Griesbach and Ron Beck

Differences in structural gene expression are responsible for a wide range of responses from human cancer to patterned flowers. Gene silencing is one of the ways in which gene expression is controlled. We have developed a model system to study gene silencing using a gene silencing mutation in Petunia ×hybrida (Star mutation) and the ability of certain viruses to reverse the silencing mutation. This model system was used to characterize how the Star flower color pattern was controlled.

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R.J. Griesbach

The biochemistry of flowers is very complex, depending not only on the specific anthocyanin present but also on vacuolar pH, presence of metal ions, type of co-pigment present, and the molar ratio of co-pigment to anthocyanin. Because of the wide array of different flower colors, Petunia hybrida is an excellent model system to study the genetic interaction of all of these factors. The segregation of the different flower colors in an F2 population from a red × violet outcross could be explained through the combined inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation and pH. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation was controlled by two independent genes (hf and Mf) that followed simple Mendelian genetics. The inheritance of pH was more complex, being controlled by two independent co-dominant genes (Ph1 and Ph2). Linkage of the various pH and anthocyanin genes prevented the expression of all of the potential gene combinations.

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J.E. Erwin, R. Warner, G.T. Smith and R. Wagner

Petunia × hybrida Vilm. cvs. `Purple Wave', `Celebrity Burgundy', `Fantasy Pink Morn', and `Dreams Red' were treated with temperature and photoperiod treatments for different lengths of time at different stages of development during the first 6 weeks after germination. Plants were grown with ambient light (≈8–9 hr) at 16°C before and after treatments. Flowering was earliest and leaf number below the first flower was lowest when plants were grown under daylight plus 100 μmol·m–2·s–1 continuous light (high-pressure sodium lamps). Flowering did not occur when plants were grown under short-day treatment (8-hr daylight). Plants grown with night interruption lighting from 2200–0200 HR (2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps) flowered earlier, and with a reduced leaf number compared to plants grown with daylight + a 3-hr day extension from 1700–2000 HR (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 using high-pressure sodium lamps). Plant height and internode elongation were greatest and least in night interruption and continuous light treatments, respectively. `Fantasy Pink Morn' and `Purple Wave' were the earliest and latest cultivars to flower, respectively. Flowering was hastened as temperature increased from 12 to 20°C, but not as temperature was further increased from 20 to 24°C. Branching increased as temperature decreased from 24 to 12°C. Implications of data with respect to classification of petunia flower induction and pre-fi nishing seedlings are discussed.

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Guo-Gui Ning, Xue-Ping Shi, Hui-Rong Hu, Yan Yan and Man-Zhu Bao

successful method of multiplying double-flowered plants of Petunia . Also, semidouble flowers appear to be a rarity within Petunia hybrida varieties. Hence, the genetic basis of the double-flower phenotype in petunia is poorly understood and this is a