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Richard O. Kelly, Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Rick K. Schoellhorn

Florida is one of the top wholesale producers of bedding plants, and in 2003 was ranked fourth in annual bedding plant production and fifth in potted pansy/viola production. Evaluation of pansy cultivars is vital for continued growth of the industry. We evaluated 210 cultivars of pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana) (164 new cultivars) in replicated class tests at the University of Florida's Gulf Coast Research and Education Center at Bradenton, Fla., from 2000–04 to determine the best-of-class and use them in future trials to compare against new entries in the same class. In this report, we provide objective plant measurements of vegetative and floral characteristics as well as subjective performance ratings. Subjective ratings were on a 1 to 7 scale with the highest rating of 7 for excellent. In general, overall performance ratings (combined foliage, flower, arthropod, and disease ratings) ≥5.5 were considered outstanding. Pansy cultivars were grouped into classes based on flower color and pattern. Best-of-class selections that had an outstanding overall performance rating in one or more contested trials, never falling below 5.0 in other contested trials, were: (black class) `Accord/Banner Black Beauty', (blue shades/tints class) `Nature Blue', (blue with blotch class) `Nature Ocean', (mix class) `Panola Clear Mixture', (pink shades/tints with blotch class) `Nature Pink Shades', [purple (dark), blue-violet with white cap class] `Nature Beacon', [purple (dark), blue-violet/white face with blotch class] `Panola Purple With Face', (purple with light eye class) `Baby Bingo Lavender Blue', (white class) `Nature White', (yellow class) `Nature Yellow', (yellow with blotch and purple, blue-violet cap class) `Iona Purple & Yellow With Blotch', (yellow with blotch and red cap class) `Bingo Red & Yellow', (yellow with blotch and red cap class) `Panola Yellow With Blotch', (yellow with dark veins class) `Whiskers Yellow'. We believe these cultivars would perform well in the southern U.S. or areas of the world with similar heat and cold hardiness zones.

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Nicole L. Waterland, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

, have been observed in some species ( Blanchard et al., 2007 ; Kim and van Iersel, 2008 ; Waterland et al., 2010 ). We observed leaf chlorosis on drought-stressed Tagetes patula (marigolds), Pelargonium × hortorum (seed geraniums), and pansies

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H. Kamemoto and T.D. Amore

A peloric form of the labellum or lip of Dendrobium appeared in a hybrid registered by D'Bush Nursery of Australia as Dendrobium D'Bush Pansy in 1988. Unlike the typical lip of Dendrobium, the lip of D'Bush Pansy is similar to the two lateral sepals, and the flat petals and sepals resemble those of the pansy, hence the name D'Bush Pansy. A few seedlings of D'Bush Pansy were obtained from Australia through Bangkok Flowers in 1989. D'Bush Pansy crossed to several Dendrobium plants with normal lip produced offspring with normal lip, indicating that pansy-lip is recessive to normal-lip. Three F1 offspring backcrossed to the pansy-lip parent produced 1:1 ratios, and one F2 progeny segregated into 3 normal-lip: 1 pansy-lip. Thus, pansylip is controlled by a single recessive gene pair.

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Jong-Goo Kang, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Sue K. Dove, Geoffrey M. Weaver, and Marc W. van Iersel

nitrogen concentration correlates positively to leaf chlorophyll content ( Evans, 1983 ; Loh et al., 2002 ). We hypothesized that increased fertilization can reduce the severity of ABA-induced chlorosis in pansy. Pansy was used as a model plant because

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Charles R. Hall and Dewayne Ingram

‘Forest Pansy’ in the Lower Midwest. This flowering tree was selected as representative of the flowering tree category because of its prominence in the geographic area being studied. It is important to recognize that we report results in per

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James E. Altland, Charles H. Gilliam, Gary J. Keever, James H. Edwards, Jeff L. Sibley, and Donna C. Fare

Two experiments were conducted with pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams `Bingo Yello') to determine the relationship between foliar nitrogen (% of dry weight) (FN) and either sap nitrate concentration (SN) in petioles or SPAD readings of foliage. FN was highly correlated to SN throughout both experiments (r = 0.80 to 0.91). FN was poorly correlated to SPAD readings early in both experiments (r = 0.54 to 0.65), but more highly correlated later when visual symptoms of N deficiency were apparent (r = 0.84 to 0.90). SN determined with the Cardy sap nitrate meter was a reliable predictor of FN in pansy, while SPAD readings were only reliable after symptoms of N deficiency were visually evident. FN can be predicted with SN using the following equation: log(SN) = 0.47*FN + 1.6 [r 2 = 0.80, n = 132]. Growers and landscape professionals can use SN readings to predict FN levels in pansy, and thus rapidly and accurately diagnose the N status of their crop.

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Wook Oh, Erik S. Runkle, and Ryan M. Warner

( Warrington and Norton, 1991 ). Petunia grown under a higher DLI had more and larger flowers ( Kaczperski et al., 1991 ). In addition, an elevated DLI inhibited stem and peduncle extension growth in pansy ( Viola × wittrockiana Gams.) ( Niu et al., 2000

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Geoffrey M. Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

of ABA and PBI 429 foliar sprays for extending shelf life in pansies ( Weaver and van Iersel, 2014 ). These compounds reduced evapotranspiration similarly, but ABA consistently caused leaf chlorosis, whereas PBI 429 did not. We were unable to quantify

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, Jonathan Frantz, and Ingram McCall

Reports of distorted terminal growth of pansy, petunia, and gerbera plants have become more prevalent, specifically in plugs grown in the high heat and humidity conditions of summer. The problem, considered to be a deficiency of calcium (Ca) or

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Karen Neil, Carl Niedziela, and Marihelen Kamp-Glass

A study was conducted with pansies (Viola wittrockiana) on a tobacco float bed system to determine if plugs could successfully be grown into transplants and to determine nutrient levels that wouldprovide the best transplants. Transplants were grown in a soilless media in 72-cell polystyrene float trays, floating on four different nutrient concentrations: 25, 50, 100, or 200 ppm. Length of time needed to produce regular-size transplants is reduced by half. Only 3 weeks are needed using the floating bed system, while 6 to 9 weeks are needed for the conventional method. Transplants displayed vigorous growth with normal morphology. Plant height and weight are significantly enhanced by increasing the nutrient concentration.