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Gene A. Giacomelli and William J. Roberts

The diversity of coverings for the greenhouse and other plant production structures has increased dramatically during the past 4 decades. This has resulted from the availability of new types of covering materials and enhancements of previously existing materials, as well as the demands for technological improvements within the expanding controlled environment agricultural industry. The types of coverings currently available are dominated by plastics. These range from traditional glass to the recent advent of polymer plastics, such as thin films or multilayer rigid thermoset plastic panels. Available enhancements such as ultraviolet radiation (UV) degradation inhibitors, infrared radiation (IR) absorbency, and anti-condensation drip surfaces, as well as their physical and spectral properties are discussed. The selection of specific covering alternatives has implications for the greenhouse superstructure and its enclosed crop production system.

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Gary R. Bachman and James D. Metzger

(O.M. Scotts Co., Marysville, Ohio)] was amended with pig (PVC) or beef cattle (BVC) manure. MM360 is a potting substrate formulated from Canadian sphagnum peatmoss, horticultural-grade vermiculite, ground bark, processed bark ash, dolomitic lime, and

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Lisa W. DeVetter, Huan Zhang, Shuresh Ghimire, Sean Watkinson, and Carol A. Miles

, 2017 ). To assess mulch deterioration, visual observations of rips, tears, and holes were observed and recorded as PVC of the soil on the 15th and 30th of each month during the experiment. The percentage of weed cover was also recorded to assess weed

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Jinmin Fu, Bingru Huang, and Jack Fry

’ tall fescue were collected from the field on 4 Nov. 2001 and planted on a mixture of sand and fritted clay [9:1 (v:v); Profile Products, Deerfield, IL] contained in PVC tubes (10 cm diameter × 40 cm long). The grasses were grown for ≈90 d in growth

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Keisha Rose-Harvey, Kevin J. McInnes, and James C. Thomas

sand-based root zone mixture placed atop a geotextile overlying a geogrid that allowed free lateral drainage. The cells consisted of 153-mm inner diameter × 350-mm long sections of PVC pipe, flat-bottom PVC end caps with drainage holes on one side of

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Yong Yang, Xueyong Liu, Yuanli Jiang, Zuoxiang Xiang, Qingguo Xu, Na Zhao, and Bichao Shu

organic matter and with a pH of 8.02. PVC tubes (9 cm diameter, 42 cm depth) were divided into three layers according to the depth: upper (0–10 cm), middle (10–20 cm), and bottom (20–40 cm). The three layers of PVC tubes were filled with saline soil and

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Zhuangjun Zhao, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Tao Hu, Yan Xie, Longxing Hu, and Jinmin Fu

Seed Co. (Wuhan, China) has a broad range of salinity adaptability, the utmost of salt tolerance level being 1.0% content of NaCl. Germination of 0.1 g of perennial ryegrass seeds was done in 15 PVC tubes (10.5 cm diameter, 42 cm depth), five tubes for

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Mohamed A. Shahba, Mohamed S. Abbas, and Saad F. Alshammary

rooting characteristics. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth conditions Clear PVC root tubes measuring 10.2 cm in diameter and 122 cm in length, which contained a 7.6-cm deep gravel base, with three drainage holes at the bottom were used

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Maria P. Fuentealba, Jing Zhang, Kevin E. Kenworthy, John E. Erickson, Jason Kruse, and Laurie E. Trenholm

sand:peat, mix and set inside of 7.6-cm diameter white PVC pipes. Plugs (5 cm diameter) of each genotype taken from field plots or greenhouse trays, washed free of soil and roots removed below the crowns, were planted into the tubes. The experiment was

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Ikuo Kataoka and Kenji Beppu

The contribution of the UV light component on the skin coloration was determined in `Hakuho' peach. Detached fruit partially covered with a UV-proof polyvinylchloride (PVC) film and a polyethylene film were exposed to sunlight for 4 days. Red coloration of the fruit and anthocyanin content in the skin were considerably reduced with the UV-proof PVC film. Irradiation with a UV fluorescent lamp at 3.58 W·m-2 markedly enhanced the red color development, while white fluorescent light at 120 μmol·m-2·s-1 did not affect the coloration. UV irradiation also increased the anthocyanin content in the cultured skin discs with increasing irradiance up to above 7.3 W·m-2. These results suggest that the UV component contributes significantly to the enhancement of the fruit coloration by sunlight exposure.