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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

lowest content of saturated fatty acids (5% to 8%) and moderate content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objectives of this study were to ascertain affects of cultivars and growing locations on contents of various fatty acids in canola sprouts

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Josep Rufat, Agustí J. Romero-Aroca, Amadeu Arbonés, Josep M. Villar, Juan F. Hermoso, and Miquel Pascual

addition, Vossen et al. (2008) , working on an irrigation trial with ‘Arbequina’ in California, reported an increase of PUFAs and a reduction in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) when irrigation increased, which is in agreement with the results of Tovar

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Laurence Sistrunk, Dan Chapman, and J. Benton Storey

Four cultivars of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] were selected for the study (`Cheyenne', `Mohawk', `Pawnee', and `Osage'). The influence of total climatic heat units, during nut filling, on nut quality was compared from 14 geographic locations over a 3-year study. Nut quality parameters included nut size by weight, kernel percentage by weight, kernel color by Hunter Color Difference Meter, fatty acid profile by GC, and total oil by NMR. Nuts were harvested at shuck split, dried to 3% moisture, and stored at –20C prior to analysis. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and total oil increased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased in `Mohawk' 2 out of 3 years with increased heat units. Fatty acids in `Pawnee' responded the same as in `Mohawk' in 1992, but were variable in 1991. In 1993, `Pawnee' kernel whiteness and total oil decreased with increased heat units. Higher heat units caused the testas of `Cheyenne' to be darker in all 3 years. MUFA of `Cheyenne' increased with increased heat units 1 out of 3 years. The PUFA content of `Cheyenne' decreased with increased heat units in 1993. `Osage' showed a reversal of MUFA and PUFA with increased heat units. High negative correlation between oleic and linoleic acid were obtained for all cultivars.

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Kumar G.N. Mohan and N.R. Knowles

Studies on the mechanisms by which growth potential of potato seed-tubers declines during aging suggest that membrane deterioration may be involved. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, ethane evolution, solute leakage, and activity of the membrane-bound ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) were measured in tissues from 2, 14 and 26-month-old potato tubers as potential indicators of peroxidative damage and loss in membrane integrity. Solute leakage increased with tissue age, reflecting loss in membrane integrity. MDA content, a measure of lipid peroxidation, also increased with tuber age. Ethane is a product of free-radical-mediated peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and is therefore a sensitive marker of membrane damage. In the absence of fatty acid substrate, old tissue evolved less ethane than young tissue. However, addition of linoleate to the incubation medium stimulated more ethane from the oldest tissue, indicating a higher potential for ethane production. In vivo conversion of ACC to ethylene by EFE declined with age, possibly due to membrane deterioration. These studies show that peroxidation of PUFA may be influencing membrane integrity during long-term storage of potato.

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L. Carl Greve, Gale McGranahan, Janine Hasey, Ronald Snyder, Kathy Kelly, David Goldhamer, and John M. Labavitch

Abbreviations: ET, full water use; PTB, packing-tissue-brown; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; REGWF, Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple F test. We thank K. Woeste and N. Willits for statistical assistance and E. Germain, S.K. Xi, and A.M. Davis

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Shimon Meir, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas, and Nehemia Aharoni

Abbreviations: BHT, butylated hydroxy toluene; FCs, fluorescent compounds; MDA, malondialdehyde; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; TBA, thiobarbituric acid. Contribution from the Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan

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Harbans Bhardwaj and Anwar Hamama

Sprouts from various seeds are considered healthy for human consumption. However, no information is available about sprouts made from canola (Brassica napus L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), two new potential alternate crops in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Canola sprouts, on an average, contained (g/100 g, dry weight basis) 38.9 oil, and 61.5, 18.6, 9.2, 7.4, 92.6, 64.8, and 27.8 percent of 18:1, 18:2, 18:3, total unsaturated, total saturated, MUFA, and PUFA fatty acids, respectively, in the oil. Corresponding values for white lupin sprouts were: 6.5, 43.0, 24.9, 9.3, 17.9, 82.1, 47.9, and 34.2. Canola sprouts contained 26.9% protein, whereas white lupin sprouts contained 26.3% protein. Details of these experiments and further results would be presented.

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G.N.M Kumar and N.R. Knowles

The physiological mechanisms leading to a decline in sprout-vigor, root growth potential and apical dominance during long-term aging of potato seed tubers are currently under investigation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and ethane, products of peroxidative degradation of PUFA increase in seed-tuber tissues with advancing age (from 2 to 32 months of storage). MDA is known to react with free amino acids to produce lipofuscin-like fluorescent compounds (FC), which build-up in aging/senescent tissues of plants and animals. With advancing seed-tuber age, an increase in free amino acids, MDA and FC concentrations was evident. Moreover, high levels of MDA have been shown to reduce protein synthesis in both plant and animal cells. We therefore examined the extent to which seed-tuber age affects protein synthesizing capacity of tuber tissues during sprouting. Tissue disks from 6- and 18-mo-old seed-tubers at various stages of sprouting, were compared for their protein synthesizing ability by monitoring the incorporation of radiolabelled amino acids into TCA precipitable products. The rate of incorporation (dpm mg protein-1 min-1) was 1.8 to 5.4-fold higher in tissue from 6-mo-old, as compared to that from 18-mo-old seed tubers, at similar stages of sprout development. Loss in protein synthesizing ability (possibly due to direct peroxidative damage) may be an important factor contributing to loss of sprout-vigor from aged potato seed-tubers.

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Yuqing Wang, Richard J. Heerema, James L. Walworth, Barry Dungan, Dawn VanLeeuwen, and F. Omar Holguin

no statistically significant difference for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion among the soil Zn EDTA treatments and control (data not presented). The overall levels of total unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs plus PUFAs) occupied ≈86% of

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Mercè Rovira, Juan Francisco Hermoso, and Agustí J. Romero

cultivars (Clon La Masó, Negret N-9, Negret Primerenc, and Pauetet) had up to 10% variation in oleic acid content between years, while the other cultivars only varied 5% to 7%. The cultivar richest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was Negret Primerenc