High rates of N fertilization of cool-season vegetables has contributed to NO3-N pollution of groundwater in the Salinas Valley of central California. Ten field demonstrations were conducted in 1999 to document the utility of presidedress soil NO3-N testing in maximizing N fertilizer efficiency in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). In each demonstration, a plot 36 beds wide × the entire field length was established in a commercial lettuce field. The cooperating growers applied 1 to 3 N sidedressings in these fields. Before each sidedressing the soil NO3-N concentration in the top 30 cm of the plot was determined by an on-farm quick test technique. If NO3-N was >20 mg·kg-1, no N was applied at that sidedressing; for NO3-N <20 mg·kg-1, ≈4 kg N/ha was applied for each milligram per kilogram below the 20 mg·kg-1 threshold. Plot yields, harvested by commercial crews, were compared to the yield of adjacent areas of the field that received the growers' full sidedress N regime. Across fields, seasonal sidedress N application in the PSNT plots averaged N only at 86 kg·ha-1, almost 60% less than the average N (212 kg·ha-1) applied by the growers. Yields in the PSNT plots averaged 1824 boxes/ha, compared with 1829 boxes/ha in the companion field plots. Whole leaf N concentration at heading was above published sufficiency standards in all PSNT plots. Evaluation of heads after 10 days of storage at 5 °C showed that sidedress N application rate did not affect visual quality, decay, or midrib discoloration. We conclude that PSNT can reliably be used to minimize wasteful sidedress N applications in lettuce.
T.K. Hartz and S. Breschini
Joseph R. Heckman, Ray Samulis and Peter Nitzsche
Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) growers evaluating new practices for N management, such as the presidedress soil nitrate test (PSNT), are interested in relating observations about crop performance at time of harvest to their N fertility program. For this purpose, the concentration of nitrogen (N) in the lower portion of sweet corn stalks was examined on the day of harvest as a basis for evaluating the crop N status. Sweet corn stalk tissue was collected from N-rate experiments by cutting a stalk section at 15 and 35 cm aboveground and removing leaf material from the resulting 20-cm segment. Samples were dried and analyzed for total Kjeldahl N. Relationships between crop yield and stalk N concentration indicated that concentrations <11 g·kg-1 are N deficient and underfertilized; N concentrations between 11 and 16.5 g·kg-1 are marginally deficient; and between 16.5 and 21 g·kg-1 the N status is optimum. Concentrations of N >21 g·kg-1 are above optimum and indicate that sweet corn was overfertilized with N. When soil nitrate concentrations (PSNT >25 mg NO3-N per kilogram) indicated sufficient N at time of sidedressing, stalk N concentrations generally indicated N sufficiency at harvest.
S.J. Breschini and T.K. Hartz
Trials were conducted in 15 commercial fields in the central coast region of California in 1999 and 2000 to evaluate the use of presidedress soil nitrate testing (PSNT) to determine sidedress N requirements for production of iceberg and romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). In each field a large plot (0.2-1.2 ha) was established in which sidedress N application was based on presidedress soil NO3-N concentration. Prior to each sidedress N application scheduled by the cooperating growers, a composite soil sample (top 30 cm) was collected and analyzed for NO3-N. No fertilizer was applied in the PSNT plot at that sidedressing if NO3-N was >20 mg·kg-1; if NO3-N was lower than that threshold, only enough N was applied to increase soil available N to ≈20 mg·kg-1. The productivity and N status of PSNT plots were compared to adjacent plots receiving the growers' standard N fertilization. Cooperating growers applied a seasonal average of 257 kg·ha-1 N, including one to three sidedressings containing 194 kg·ha-1 N. Sidedressing based on PSNT decreased total seasonal and sidedress N application by an average of 43% and 57%, respectively. The majority of the N savings achieved with PSNT occurred at the first sidedressing. There was no significant difference between PSNT and grower N management across fields in lettuce yield or postharvest quality, and only small differences in crop N uptake. At harvest, PSNT plots had on average 8 mg·kg-1 lower residual NO3-N in the top 90 cm of soil than the grower fertilization rate plots, indicating a substantial reduction in subsequent NO3-N leaching hazard. We conclude that PSNT is a reliable management tool that can substantially reduce unnecessary N fertilization in lettuce production.
Joseph R. Heckman, Thomas Morris, J. Thomas Sims, Joseph B. Sieczka, Uta Krogmann, Peter Nitzsche and Richard Ashley
The pre-sidedress soil nitrate test (PSNT) was evaluated in 27 fields in New Jersey, 6 in Connecticut, 5 in Delaware, and 2 on Long Island in New York for its ability to predict whether sidedress N is needed to grow fall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) as a double crop. Soil NO3-N concentrations measured on 20 field sites on the day of transplanting and 14 days after transplanting indicated that NO3-N concentrations over this time period increased, and that residues from the previous crop were not causing immobilization of soil mineral N. The relationship between soil NO3-N concentration measured 14 days after transplanting and relative yield of marketable cabbage heads was examined using Cate-Nelson analysis to define the PSNT critical level. Soil NO3-N concentrations ≥24 mg·kg-1 were associated with relative yields >92%. The success rate for the PSNT critical concentration was 84% for predicting whether sidedress N was needed. Soil NO3-N concentrations below the PSNT critical level are useful for inversely adjusting sidedress N fertilizer recommendations. The PSNT can reliably determine whether fall cabbage needs sidedress N fertilizer and the practice of soil NO3-N testing may be extendable to other cole crops with similar N requirements.
H.H. Krusekopf, J.P. Mitchell, T.K. Hartz, D.M. May, E.M. Miyao and M.D. Cahn
Overuse of chemical N fertilizers has been linked to nitrate contamination of both surface and ground water. Excessive use of fertilizer also is an economic loss to the farmer. Typical N application rates for processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in California are 150 to 250 kg·ha-1. The contributions of residual soil NO3-N and in-season N mineralization to plant nutrient status are generally not included in fertilizer input calculations, often resulting in overuse of fertilizer. The primary goal of this research was to determine if the pre-sidedress soil nitrate test (PSNT) could identify fields not requiring sidedress N application to achieve maximum tomato yield; a secondary goal was to evaluate tissue N testing currently used for identifying post-sidedress plant N deficiencies. Field experiments were conducted during 1998 and 1999. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate concentrations were determined to a depth of 60 cm at 10 field sites. N mineralization rate was estimated by aerobic incubation test. Sidedress fertilizer was applied at six incremental rates from 0 to 280 kg·ha-1 N, with six replications per field. At harvest, only four fields showed a fruit yield response to fertilizer application. Within the responsive fields, fruit yields were not increased with sidedress N application above 112 kg·ha-1. Yield response to sidedress N did not occur in fields with pre-sidedress soil NO3-N levels >16 mg·kg-1. Soil sample NO3-N levels from 30 cm and 60 cm sampling depth were strongly correlated. Mineralization was estimated to contribute an average of 60 kg·ha-1 N between sidedressing and harvest. Plant tissue NO3-N concentration was found to be most strongly correlated to plant N deficiency at fruit set growth stage. Dry petiole NO3-N was determined to be a more accurate indicator of plant N status than petiole sap NO3-N measured by a nitrate-selective electrode. The results from this study suggested that N fertilizer inputs could be reduced substantially below current industry norms without reducing yields in fields identified by the PSNT as having residual pre-sidedress soil NO3-N levels >16 mg·kg-1 in the top 60 cm.
J.R. Heckman, W.T. Hlubik, D.J. Prostak and J.W. Paterson
Research was conducted with sweet corn (Zea mays L.) to evaluate the presidedress soil NO3 test (PSNT) originally developed for use on field corn on a wide range of New Jersey soils. Soil NO3-N concentrations reflected differences in N availability due to manure or preplant N application. The relationship between soil NO3-N concentration and relative yield of marketable ears was examined using Cate–Nelson analysis to define the PSNT critical level. Soil NO3-N concentrations >25 mg·kg–1 were associated with relative yields at ≥92%. The success rate for the PSNT critical level was 85% for predicting whether sidedress N was needed. Including NH4-N in the soil analysis did not improve the accuracy of the soil test for predicting whether sidedress N was needed. Although the PSNT is quite accurate in identifying N-sufficient sites, it appears to offer only limited guidance in making N-fertilizer rate predictions. The PSNT is most useful on manured soils, which frequently have sufficient N. The test likely will help decrease the practice of applying “insurance” fertilizer N and the ensuing potential for NO3 pollution of the environment.
In-season soil nitrate testing is most useful when there is reason to believe, based on field history, that N availability may be adequate. These reasons may include soil organic matter content, applied manure, compost, legumes in the rotation, or residual N fertilizer. Soil nitrate testing is not helpful when crops are grown on sandy, low organic matter content soils that are known from experience to be N deficient. Soil nitrate testing is useful for annual crops such as vegetables or corn for which supplemental N fertilization is a concern. Soil nitrate tests must be performed at critical crop growth stages, and the results must be obtained rapidly to make important decisions about the need for N fertilization. Soil nitrate-N (NO3-N) concentrations in the range of 25 to 30 mg·kg-1 (ppm) indicate sufficiency for most crops, but N fertilizer practice should be adjusted based on local extension recommendations.
Thomas G. Bottoms, Richard F. Smith, Michael D. Cahn and Timothy K. Hartz
. Strip trials. Sixteen commercial lettuce fields were selected in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the reliability of PSNT in identifying fields in which N fertilization could be reduced or delayed with no loss of marketable yield. The fields, which were seeded
J. R. Heckman, D. J. Prostak and W. T. Hlubik
The presidedress soil nitrate test (PSNT) is an in-season soil test that evaluates the N supplying capacity of soil before side dressing to adjust N application rates. Increasing acceptance of this soil test among field corn growers in New Jersey has shown it to be an effective practice. Nitrogen application rates were reduced by an average of 45 kg-1 ha without loss of crop yield. Field calibration research to extend use of the PSNT to sweet corn has the potential to improve N fertilizer recommendations for this crop. A critical concentration of 25 mg kg-1 NO3-N in the surface 30 cm of soil is generally considered adequate for field corn. Certain crop features of sweet corn (earlier harvest, smaller plant size and population) suggested that the critical NO2-N level might be lower than for field corn while market quality suggested that it might be a higher value. Results from 40 sweet corn field calibration sites in New Jersey indicate that the PSNT critical soil NO3-N concentration may be greater for sweet corn than field corn. A preliminary critical level of 30 mg kg-1 NO3-N in the surface 30 cm of soil is suggested for use of the PSNT on sweet corn. Further research is being conducted to improve sidedress N recommendations based on the PSNT.
R. Terry Jones and David C. Ditsch
In Kentucky, fresh-market tomato production is a 3-million-dollar crop involving 405 to 486 ha. During the 1980s, on-farm demonstrations showed yields and grower returns increased when intensive production practices were followed. Fertigation recommendations were based on a 1 N: 2 K ratio with a total of 225 kg N/ha. Symptoms of Mg deficiency and blossom-end rot sometimes were seen, and we were concerned about potentially high fertilizer concentrations in the plant root zone. Farm fertility trials (1992 to 1994) showed no yield response to applied N rates between 101 and 393 kg·ha–1. In 1993, a presidedress N test (PSNT) (NO3 + NH4-N) indicated 131 kg N/ha was available in the top 31 cm of soil. At the final tomato harvest, 343, 529, and 647 kg NO3 + NH4-N was measured in the top 46 cm of soil for the three N rates tested (191, 298, and 391 kg N/ha). In 1994, the PSNT showed 86 kg NO3 + NH4-N/ha was present in the top 31 cm of soil. At final harvest 58, 124, and 157 kg NO3 + NH4-N/ha was measured in the top 91 cm of soil for the 140, 225, and 309 kg N/ha applied. Tomato phenology vs. petiole NO3-N concentration showed that all three N levels gave similar values, with no clear distinction between petiole NO3-N and the N rates tested. Future tests need to include a zero applied N rate to determine if a predictable relationship exists between a PSNT or petiole NO3-N levels and a yield response to fertilizer N.