Bench-grafted `Fuji' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees on Malling 26 (M.26) rootstocks were fertigated for 6 weeks with N concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 mm. These treatments produced levels of leaf N ranging from 0.9 to 4.3 g·m-2. Over this range, leaf absorptance increased curvilinearly from 74.8% to 92.5%. The light saturation point for CO2 assimilation expressed on the basis of absorbed light increased linearly at first with increasing leaf N, then reached a plateau at a leaf N content of ≈3 g·m-2. Under high light conditions (photosynthetic photon flux of 1500 μmol·m-2·s-1), the amount of absorbed light in excess of that required to saturate CO2 assimilation decreased with increasing leaf N. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed that the maximum photosystem II (PSII) efficiency of dark-adapted leaves was relatively constant over the leaf N range, except for a slight decrease at the lower end. As leaf N increased, nonphotochemical quenching declined under high light, and there was an increase in the efficiency with which the absorbed photons were delivered to open PSII centers. The photochemical quenching coefficient remained high except for a decrease at the lower end of the leaf N range. Actual PSII efficiency increased curvilinearly with increasing leaf N, and was highly correlated with light-saturated CO2 assimilation. The fraction of absorbed light potentially going into singlet oxygen formation was estimated to be ≈10%, regardless of leaf N status. It was concluded that there was more excess absorbed light in low N leaves than in high N leaves under high light conditions. Nonphotochemical quenching was enhanced with decreasing leaf N to reduce both the PSII efficiency and the probability of damage from photooxidation by excess absorbed light.
Lailiang Cheng, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Patrick J. Breen
Steven J. McArtney, John D. Obermiller, and Consuelo Arellano
contrast, the concentration-dependent negative effect of metamitron on Fv/Fm in ‘SunCrisp’ apples paralleled a negative linear effect of metamitron on fruit set. Presumably, the transient reduction in PSII efficiency after foliar application of metamitron
Lailiang Cheng, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Patrick J. Breen
Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO2 assimilation in response to photon flux density (PFD) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were monitored simultaneously in leaves of apple, pear, apricot, and cherry with a combined system for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange. When photorespiration was minimized by low O2 (2%) and saturated CO2 (1300 ppm), a linear relationship was found between PSII efficiency and the quantum yield for CO2 assimilation with altering PFD, indicating CO2 assimilation in this case is closely linked to PSII activity. As PFD increased from 80 to 1900 μmol·m–2·s–1 under ambient CO2 (350 ppm) and O2 (21%) conditions, PSII efficiency decreased by increased nonphotochemical quenching and decreased concentration of open PSII reaction centers. The rate of linear electron transport showed a similar response to PFD as CO2 assimilation. As Ci increased from 50 to 1000 ppm under saturating PFD (1000 μmol·m–2·s–1) and ambient O2, PSII efficiency was increased initially by decreased nonphotochemical quenching and increased concentration of open PSII reaction centers and then leveled off with further a rise in Ci. CO2 assimilation reached a plateau at a higher Ci than PSII efficiency because increasing Ci diverted electron flow from O2 reduction to CO2 assimilation by depressing photorespiration. It is concluded that PSII efficiency is regulated by both nonphotochemical quenching and concentration of open PSII reaction centers in response to light and CO2 to meet the requirement for photosynthetic electron transport.
Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez and Kelly St. John
determined as Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency were made with an IR gas analyzer (LI-COR 6400 IRGA with an integrated 6400-40 leaf chamber fluorometer; LI-COR, Inc., Lincoln, NE). PSII efficiency is the fraction of absorbed PSII photons used in photochemistry
Woei-Jiun Guo, Yu-Zu Lin, and Nean Lee
with a decrease in the F m value, indicating potential damage in PSII reaction centers. A PPF at 325 and 450 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 had reduced the F v /F m values to 0.68 to 0.74 lower than the optimal, demonstrating that PSII efficiency has been
Sasmita Mishra, Scott Heckathorn, Jonathan Frantz, Futong Yu, and John Gray
indicated that B deficiency affected photosynthesis in the latter before the former; thus, all subsequent and reported photosynthetic measurements were made on nearly expanded leaves. To examine treatment effects on PSII function, maximum PSII efficiency
Lailiang Cheng, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Patrick J. Breen
Bench-grafted Fuji/M26 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) trees were fertigated with different concentrations of nitrogen by using a modified Hoagland's solution for 45 days. CO2 assimilation and actual photosystem II (PSII) efficiency in response to incident photon flux density (PFD) were measured simultaneously in recent fully expanded leaves under low O2 (2%) and saturated CO2 (1300 ppm) conditions. A single curvilinear relationship was found between true quantum yield for CO2 assimilation and actual PSII efficiency for leaves with a wide range of leaf N content. The relationship was linear up to a quantum yield of approximately 0.05 mol CO2/mol quanta, then became curvilinear with a further rise in quantum yield in response to decreasing PFD. This relationship was subsequently used as a calibration curve to assess the rate of linear electron transport associated with rubisco and partitioning of electron flow between CO2 assimilation and photorespiration in different N leaves in response to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) under normal O2 conditions. Both the rate of linear electron flow, and the rate to CO2 or O2 increased with increasing leaf N at any given Ci, but the percentage of linear electron flow to CO2 assimilation remained the same regardless of leaf N content. As Ci increased, the percentage of linear electron flow to CO2 assimilation increased. In conclusion, the relationship between actual PSII efficiency and quantum yield for CO2 assimilation and the partitioning of electron flow between CO2 assimilation and photorespiration are not affected by N content in apple leaves.
Ricardo Cesped-Ruiz* and Bingru Huang
The American cranberry often undergoes drought stress during the summer. However, the physiological response of this species to drought is not well understood. This study was designed to determine the effects of drought on two commercial cranberry cultivars of high potential yield, `Ben Lear' and `Stevens', during a vegetative stage. The plants were subjected to drought for 15 days in a greenhouse. Soil water content, leaf water content, leaf photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, differential leaf-air temperature, photochemical efficiency (Fv'/Fm') and the actual PSII efficiency (deltaF/Fm') decreased in those plants subjected to drought. Drought reduced differential leaf-air temperature at day 6 of treatment and stomatal conductance and transpiration starting at day 9 and photosynthetic rate at day 13. Drought decreased leaf water content at day 14 and Fv'/Fm' and PSII efficiency at day 15. Our results indicated that cranberry plants in vegetative stage were sensitive to drought for both cultivars and stomatal conductance was the most sensitive parameter among those examined for both cultivars.
William L. Bauerle, Jerry B. Dudley, and Lawrence W. Grimes
Cultivars of red (Acer rubrum L.) and Freeman maple (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray) are popular ornamental plants which are commonly placed in a variety of landscapes. To date, little information quantifies the capacity to tolerate and recover from drought among cultivars of red and Freeman maple. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of water stress on the physiology of five different maple cultivars of marketable size including four red maple genotypes, `Summer Red', `October Glory' (October Glory), `Autumn Flame', and `Franksred' (Red Sunset), as well as one hybridized Freeman maple genotype, `Jeffersred' (Autumn Blaze). Two-year-old cloned genotypes of red and Freeman maple were subjected to two treatments: irrigated daily to container capacity or irrigation withheld for one drought and recovery cycle. Light absorption, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were conducted under well-watered and drought stress conditions that approached 0.070 m3·m-3. Compared to well-watered conditions, drought stress conditions of 0.090 m3·m-3 had a significant main effect that reduced the amount of light absorption in four of the five genotypes. Additionally, absorption among genotypes was different under both well-watered and water stress conditions. Over the course of drought stress and a recovery phase, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were different among genotypes. Maximum photosystem II (PSII) efficiency of dark-adapted leaves (Fv/Fm) was lowered by the water stress condition. The efficiency of excitation capture by open PSII reaction centers (Fv`/Fm') was variable among genotypes. Photochemical quenching was higher in Autumn Blaze, October Glory, and `Summer Red' under drought conditions, which corresponded with a low degree of closure of PSII centers. Additionally, the fraction of excess excitation energy was also lower. Lastly, water deficit caused an increase in PSII efficiency in all genotypes except Autumn Blaze. This research demonstrated physiological variation among commercially available red and Freeman maple genotypes that may be selected for drought tolerance based on site moisture characteristics.
Brandon Smith* and Lailiang Cheng
One-year-old `Concord' grapevines (Vitis labrusca L.) were fertigated twice weekly for 11 weeks with a complete nutrient solution containing 1, 10, 20, 50 or 100 μmol iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA). Leaf total Fe content did not increase in response to Fe supply, however both “active” Fe (extracted with 2, 2'-dipyridyl) and chlorophyll (Chl) content increased as applied Fe increased. At the lowest active Fe level, leaf absorptance and maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) were slightly decreased, and non-photochemical quenching was significantly greater. PSII quantum efficiency decreased curvilinearly as active Fe content decreased. On a Chl basis, the xanthophyll cycle pool size, lutein, and beta-carotene increased curvilinearly as active Fe decreased, and neoxanthin increased at the lowest Fe level. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase followed a similar trend and increased under Fe deficiency, when expressed on a Chl basis. Antioxidant metabolites also increased in response to Fe limitation. On a Chl basis, ascorbate (AsA), dehydroascorbate (DAsA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content was greater at the lowest active Fe levels. We did not find a difference in the ratio of AsA to DAsA or GSH to GSSG. In conclusion, both photoprotective mechanisms, xanthophyll cyle-dependent thermal dissipation and the ascorbate-glutatione antioxidant system, are enhanced in response to iron deficiency to cope with excess absorbed light.