factor. Statistical analysis. Cluster and PCA were performed using SPSS v.23, and calculation of correlations was performed using statistical analysis system (SAS) computer software (SAS institute Cary, NC, 1988). In addition, the means scanning electron
Mostafa Farajpour, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Amin Baghizadeh, and Mostafa Aalifar
Noémi Makovics-Zsohár, Magdolna Tóth, Dezső Surányi, Szilvia Kovács, Attila Hegedűs, and Júlia Halász
absent (0). The neighbor-joining algorithm was used to construct a dendrogram based on Jaccard’s index using the software PAST 2.17c ( Hammer et al., 2001 ). Numbers on major branches represent bootstrap supports from 2000 replicates. PCA was also carried
Michael Wisniewski, Ron Balsamo, and Tim Close
Cold acclimation in temperate, woody plants is a complex phenomenon that involves distinct changes in gene activity and protein synthesis. In previous research, a 60-kDa protein (PCA60), belonging to the dehydrin family of stress-related proteins, was identified in peach bark, and its corresponding gene (ppdhn1) was cloned and characterized. Presently, we report on the results of immunolocalization studies and in vitro cryoprotection assays. Seasonal collections of current-year stems were embedded in LR White or epoxy resin and sections of bark were probed with either a polyclonal antibody directed against a 15 amino acid sequence consensus region of dehydrins or a polyclonal antibody directed against partially-purified PCA60. In vitro cryoprotection assays utilized lactose dehydrogenase (LDH), a cold-labile enzyme. Immunolocalization at the light level indicated that the dehydrin was confined to the cytoplasm and absent in organelles. This localization was preliminarily confirmed at the ultrastructural level. LDH assays indicated cryoprotective activity in total protein extracts collected from winter bark tissues but completely absent in extracts of summer bark tissues. Preliminary LDH assays utilizing purified PCA60 also demonstrated cryoprotective activity. In general, the data further support a role for dehydrins in cold acclimation of woody plants.
Ayako Ikegami, Sai Eguchi, Keizo Yonemori, Masahiko Yamada, Akihiko Sato, Nobuhito Mitani, and Akira Kitajima
Pollination-constant and nonastringent (PCNA) is one of the most desirable traits in persimmons as this type of cultivar loses its astringency while still on the tree before harvest. Among Japanese PCNA cultivars, the trait is qualitatively inherited and recessive to pollination-constant, astringent (PCA), pollination-variant, nonastringent (PVNA), and pollination-variant, astringent (PVA) types. However, in a previous trial, both astringent and nonastringent types segregated in the F1 population that resulted from a cross between a Chinese PCNA `Luo Tian Tian Shi' and a Japanese PCNA cultivar. Because of the unusual segregation, in this study, we crossed another Japanese PCNA `Okugosho' with `Luo Tian Tian Shi' to confirm the segregation of astringent types by measuring the tannin cell size and tannin concentration at harvest. Previously, we found that astringent types have larger tannin cells than PCNA-type. The F1 hybrid progenies from the cross segregated into both PCNA and astringent-type individuals in approximately 1:1 ratio. Likewise, the F1 population from the astringent-type `Yotsumizo' and `Iwasedo' × `Luo Tian Tian Shi' were ascertained to contain both PCNA and astringent types, which indicates that the PCNA trait of `Luo Tian Tian Shi' was dominant. Thus, this Chinese cultivar has the potential to become an important parental material for future breeding of PCNA persimmons.
Jaume Lordan, Anna Wallis, Poliana Francescatto, and Terence L. Robinson
each cultivar. All mean separations were carried out using Tukey’s honestly significant difference ( P = 0.05). Residual analysis was performed to insure that model assumptions were met. Multivariate projection methods principal component analysis (PCA
Marianna Hagidimitriou, Andreas Katsiotis, George Menexes, Constantinos Pontikis, and Michael Loukas
The aim of the present study was to develop a reliable reference database to discriminate between the major Greek olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and reveal their genetic relationships, since Greece is considered a secondary center of diversity. In order to establish genetic relationships among the 26 Greek and eight international cultivars, four amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs, 12 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, along with measurements from 10 morphological traits, were used. A total of 576 AFLP and 113 RAPD markers were produced. Genetic similarities, estimated using the Jaccard algorithim, ranged from 0.45 to 0.83 for the AFLP data and 0.27 to 0.87 for the RAPD data. The cophenetic correlation coefficients between the genetic similarities and the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) phenograms were 0.77 for the AFLPs, 0.81 for the RAPDs, and 0.69 for the morphological traits. However, limited clustering similarities among the phenograms derived from the three methods were observed. This was also reflected by the low correlation between the three genetic similarity matrices produced (AFLP and RAPD, r = 0.39; AFLP and morphological traits, r = 0.11; RAPD and morphological traits, r = 0.02). According to the molecular results, olive cultivars are clustered according to fruit size but not according to geographical origin. Three of the cultivars tested, `Vasilicada,' `Throumbolia', and `Lianolia Kerkiras', were found to branch distantly to the others, according to the AFLP results, and can be considered as ancient Greek cultivars.
P. Allan-Wojtas, K.A. Sanford, K.B. McRae, and S. Carbyn
The apple industry worldwide would benefit from an improved and standardized description of fresh-apple textural quality. The description proposed here is unique in that it integrates structural, sensory, and consumer information. To demonstrate its benefits, 24 apple cultivars [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh..) Mansf.] were sampled over two harvest seasons and analyzed using microstructural and sensory techniques. Cultivars were selected to cover a range of known sensory textures, and microstructural profiles were compiled in parallel with sensory and instrumental studies. Each cultivar was pre pared for conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation using standard methods. Representative fruit from each cultivar were photographed at three magnifications to visualize fruit architecture, tissue relationships, and size, shape, and arrangement of cells within layers to compile the microstructural profile. A trained sensory panel evaluated the cultivars for crispness, surface coarseness, sponginess, hardness, juiciness, degree of melting, mealiness, and skin toughness while a consumer panel rated liking. This information was compiled into a texture profile. The microstructural and texture profiles were then combined into a cultivar profile for each sample. Cultivar profiles were collected to form a database; subtle similarities and differences among the 28 market-quality samples were interpreted and noted. With this technique, those structures with similar sensory properties can be identified with some form of microscopy. Clarifying and predicting the parameters that are related to textural quality in new cultivars will streamline the introduction process.
Stephen S. Miller
tree is a moderately vigorous to vigorous cultivar. The growth suppressant prohexadione–calcium (PCa) (Apogee; BASF Corp., Agricultural Products Group, Research Triangle Park, NC) has demonstrated excellent shoot growth control in a number of apple
Todd C. Einhorn, Mateus S. Pasa, and Janet Turner
-controlling compound, P-Ca, has been shown to effectively manage vegetative growth in several tree-fruit crops, including pear ( Asin et al., 2007 ; Costa et al., 2001 , 2004 ; Elfving et al., 2002 , 2003b ; Rademacher et al., 2004 ; Smit et al., 2005 ), apple
Steven McArtney, J.D. Obermiller, and A. Green
multiple GA 4+7 sprays may not be sufficient to offset this additional cost in some years or regions. Prohexadione-calcium (P-Ca) is a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor that is increasingly being used in apple production systems globally to reduce