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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie and Vicki Schlegel

Oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) is a well-known medicinal, culinary, and essential oil plant that has been used as medicinal plant since ancient times in the Mediterranean region ( Stojanov, 1973 ). Indeed, the plant, the plant extract, and the

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Karen L. Panter, Timmothy M. Gergeni, Casey P. Seals and Andrea R. Garfinkel

High tunnels are gaining popularity for their use in horticultural crop production. However, little is known about the effect of high tunnel orientation on plant growth and development. In this set of studies, we show tunnel orientation does not necessarily affect the production of cut sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and culinary herbs oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), and garlic chive (Allium tuberosum). Two high tunnels, one with the long axis oriented north-south (NS) and the other east-west (EW), were used to test the effects of high tunnel orientation on several crops over a 5-year period: cut sunflower (2012 and 2016); marjoram, oregano, and garlic chive (2013 and 2014); and garlic chive (2015). The tunnels are 12 × 16 ft, smaller than those used in commercial production. The size would be appropriate for hobby and seasonal production of horticultural crops for local markets. Cut sunflower stems were similar lengths both years in both high tunnels. Sunflower times to harvest were different between cultivars but not between high tunnels. Oregano fresh weight yields were highest in the NS tunnel in 2013 but similar between tunnels in 2014. Marjoram fresh weights were highest in 2013 in the EW tunnel but highest in 2014 in the NS tunnel. Garlic chive fresh weights were similar between tunnels all 3 years. We show that differences are more a function of innate cultivar characteristics than which way small high tunnels are oriented.

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Nina L. Cycholl

A greenhouse study was conducted from Oct. 1999 through Feb. 2000, and Mar. 2001 through Apr. 2001, to determine the potential phytotoxic effects of selected insecticides on Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L. `Santa Cruz'), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum L. `Topaz'), wolly thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. `Wolly'), and nutmeg thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. `Nutmeg'). Insecticides used for the study were Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA, pyrethrin [+ piperonyl butoxide (PBO)], azadirachtin, potassium salts of fatty acids, two rates of cinnamaldehyde, paraffinic oil, and capsaicin. Visual observations of phytotoxicity were made 7 days after the final application. Pyrethrin, potassium salts of fatty acids, and both rates of cinnamaldehyde were consistently more phytotoxic than the other insecticides. Despite the phytotoxic effects from some of the insecticides, new growth that emerged following treatments compensated for the initial damage, and the herbs were still saleable.

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J.R. Schroeder and Alice Le Duc

Ten culinary and ornamental herbs were evaluated for time and quality of rooting of tip cuttings. The taxa included in the study were oregano (Origanum vulgare), lemon thyme (Thymus ×citriodorata), applemint (Mentha suavolens), Persian catnip (Nepeta ×faassenii), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum), caraway thyme (Thymus herba-barona), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), `Blue Wonder' catnip (Nepeta `Blue Wonder'), pineapplemint (Mentha suavolens var. variegata). Four replicates of each species were used. The cuttings, untreated and rooting hormone treated, were placed under intermittent mist, then cuttings potted when a 1- to 1.5-inch root ball had developed. Most of the stock suffered from some chlorosis during rooting; southernwood cuttings particularly displayed severe chlorosis which was overcome with 2 weeks of constant-feed fertilizer after potting. Oregano displayed the best results, rooting in seven days with or without treatment. It produced a sellable 4-inch pot in 31 days from sticking the cuttings. Lemon thyme, applemint, Persian catnip, and lemon balm all rooted in 14 days if treated. No difference was observed in days to rooting between treated and untreated lemon thyme. Untreated cuttings of lemon balm, applemint, and Persian catnip rooted in 25 to 30 days. Treated applemint cuttings not only rooted more quickly but produced a marketable 4-inch pot in significantly less time. Southernwood and caraway thyme rooted in 25 days, with no significant difference between treated and untreated cuttings. Hyssop, pineapplemint, and `Blue Wonder' catnip took about 30 days, also with no significant difference between treated and untreated cuttings.

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Jerry T. Walker

Twenty herb species were exposed to root-knot nematode under greenhouse conditions. The root systems were examined for root gall development and nematode reproduction as an indication of host suitability. The herbs evaluated were balm (Melissa officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativium L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavender (Lavandula augustifolia Mill.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha ×piperita L.), rocket-salad (Erurca vesicaria L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.). Peppermint, oregano, and marjoram consistently were free of root galls after exposure to initial nematode populations of two or 15 eggs/cm3 of soil medium and were considered resistant. All other herb species developed root galls with accompanying egg masses, classifying them as susceptible or hypersusceptible to root-knot nematode. The highest initial nematode egg density (15 eggs/cm3) significantly decreased dry weights of 14 species. The dry weights of other species were unaffected at these infestation densities after 32- to 42-day exposure.

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Mohsen Hesami and Mostafa Rahmati-Joneidabad

subgenus ( Khadivi-Khub et al., 2012 ), Prunus dulcis ( Chalak et al., 2007 ), Origanum vulgare ( Andi et al., 2011 ), and Punica granatum ( Sarkhosh et al., 2009 ). Also, multivariate methods can help to assess large datasets and resolve various

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Kagiso Given Shadung, Phatu William Mashela and Maboko Samuel Mphosi

compounds ( Phillips et al., 1960 ). In essential oils, for example, drying temperature for oregano ( Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum ) was optimized at 40 °C for 72 h ( Novák et al., 2011 ), whereas at higher temperatures most essential oils were volatilized

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Thomas Horgan, Vicki Schlegel and Xavier Simonnet

other aromatic plants such as Japanese cornmint ( Mentha canadensis L.) ( Zheljazkov and Astatkie, 2012b ), pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) ( Zheljazkov et al., 2012a ), oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) ( Zheljazkov et al., 2012b ), female and

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Barry O'Brocki and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

flexuosus Steud.), and palmarosa ( Cymbopogon martini Roxb.) ( Cannon et al., 2013 ), pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) ( Zheljazkov et al., 2012a ), Japanese cornmint ( Mentha canadensis L.) ( Zheljazkov and Astatkie, 2012 ), oregano ( Origanum

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Paige L. Herring, Abbey C. Noah and Helen T. Kraus

native shrub Pistacian lentiscus L Bioresource Technol. 99 1793 1800 Panou-Filotheou, H. Bosabalidis, A.M. Karataglis, S. 2001 Effects of copper toxicity on leaves of oregano ( Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum ) Ann. Bot. 88 207 214 Penn, C. Bell, G