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Noelle J. Fuller, Ronald B. Pegg, James Affolter, and David Berle

replications. Nine holy basil ( O. tenuiflorum L.) accessions (PI 288779, PI 652059, PI 652057, PI 652056, PI 414201, PI 414202, PI 414203, PI 414204, and PI 414205) were acquired from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (Ames, IA), and four named

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Kellie J. Walters and Christopher J. Currey

, schedule crops, and conduct cost–benefit analyses. Materials and Methods Plant material and propagation. Seeds of sweet basil ( O. basilicum ‘Nufar’), holy basil ( O. tenuiflorum ), and lemon basil ( O. × citriodorum ‘Lime’ and O. basilicum ‘Sweet Dani

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Kellie J. Walters and Christopher J. Currey

Basil (Ocimum sp.) is the most popular fresh culinary herb. However, there is a lack of data characterizing the effect of hydroponic production systems and cultivars on the yield of hydroponically produced basil. Our objectives were to quantify productivity and characterize growth of basil cultivars grown in two hydroponic production systems. Thirty-five basil cultivars, including selections of sweet basil (O. basilicum), holy basil (O. tenuiflorum), and lemon basil (O. ×citriodorum and O. basilicum) were chosen. Seedlings were transplanted into nutrient film technique (NFT) or deep flow technique (DFT) systems and grown for 3 weeks. There was no interaction between basil cultivars and hydroponic production system. Fresh weight of plants grown in DFT systems was 2.6 g greater compared with plants grown in NFT systems. Basil cultivars differed greatly in fresh weight. In general, holy, lemon, and sweet basil cultivars produce moderate to high fresh weight, but vary greatly. Dissimilarly, bush (O. basilicum var. minimum), cinnamon (O. basilicum), large-leaf (O. basilicum), and thai basils (O. basilicum var. thyrisiflorum) produce moderate fresh weight and purple basil (O. basilicum) cultivars produce the least fresh weight. The yield of basil seems to be affected more by cultivar selection than hydroponic production system. Therefore, hydroponic basil producers should select basil cultivars based on flavor and yield, while hydroponic systems should be selected based on operational preferences.

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Christian A. Wyenandt, Lisa R. Maimone, Kathryn Homa, Angela M. Madeiras, Robert L. Wick, and James E. Simon

Different basils (Ocimum sp.) and cultivars (28 in 2009 and 32 in 2010) were evaluated for susceptibility to basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Bridgeton in southern New Jersey. At the end of each growing season, seed was collected from individual plants and stored for potential downy mildew pathogen detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Most of the basil cultivars and breeding lines were showing symptoms of basil downy mildew infection at the time of seed collection before the first frost near the end of the production season. Symptoms of basil downy mildew were present on 25 of the 28 (89%) basil lines evaluated in 2009 and 26 of 32 (81%) basil lines tested in 2010 at the time of seed harvest, with sporulation evident on the abaxial surface of infected leaves. Real-time PCR analysis of seed collected from various infected plants detected P. belbahrii on seed of 14 of 25 (56%) basil lines tested in 2009 and 8 of 32 (25%) tested in 2010. Importantly, P. belbahrii was not only detected on seed of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) phenotypes but also on seed of ‘Spice’ basil (Ocimum americanum) in 2009 and ‘Sweet Dani Lemon Basil’ basil (Ocimum citriodorum), ‘Holy Red and Green’ basil [Ocimum tenuiflorum (form. sanctum)], ‘Lime’ basil (O. americanum), and again on ‘Spice’ basil in 2010 where no symptoms (i.e., no chlorosis or sporulation) were present on the leaves when seed were collected. This work demonstrates that basil seed, regardless of basil species and whether symptoms are visible on foliage of the basil plant or the plant is immune or resistant to downy mildew, can test positive for the presence of P. belbahrii using a real-time PCR assay following exposure of plants to the pathogen during the natural development of downy mildew under field conditions.

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Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Natta Laohakunjit, Sasathorn Singkornard, and Frank B. Matta

include β-caryophyllene in hairy basil or O. tenuiflorum L. ( Simon et al., 1990 ) and citral in O. citriodorium Vis. ( Grayer et al., 1996 ; Morales et al., 1993 ; Simon et al., 1990 ). The toxicity of essential oils often varies as a result of

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Kellie J. Walters and Christopher J. Currey

. × citriodorum ‘Lime’), and holy basil ( O. tenuiflorum ‘Holy’) 3 weeks after transplanting into nutrient-film technique hydroponic systems containing nutrient solutions with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0 dS·m −1 electrical conductivities (ECs). Data were pooled

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Cedric A. Sims and Srinivasa R. Mentreddy

Basil (Ocimum sp.), belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae (Labiatae), is a popular herb grown for the fresh market or for its dried aromatic leaves, which are used as a spice or in potpourris. In Asian countries, basil, particularly O. tenuiflorum, is better known as a medicinal plant species used for treating ailments ranging from colds to complex diseases such as cancers and diabetes. In the United States, however, it has a limited acceptance as a fresh-market herb. There is much potential for developing basil as a medicinal plant to cater to the growing herbal medicinal products industry. A field trial was therefore conducted to determine optimum date of planting basil in Alabama. Six-week-old seedlings were transplanted from the greenhouse into field plots arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. Planting dates at monthly intervals beginning in April were the main plots and three Ocimum accessions, Ames 23154, Ames 23155, and PI 288779 were sub-plot treatments. The accessions were compared for growth, leaf area development, light interception, canopy cover, and dry matter accumulation and partitioning pattern over planting dates. Ames 23154, with greater canopy cover (98.5%) and photosynthetically active radiation interception (96.1%), also produced higher total plant biomass than other accessions. Accession PI 288779 appeared to partition greater dry matter to leaves, which are the primary source of bioactive compounds in basil. Among planting dates, second (May) date of planting appeared to be optimum for both total biomass and leaf dry matter production. Genotypic variation f or dry-matter partitioning and relationships among agronomic parameters as influenced by planting date will be discussed in this presentation.

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Kathryn Homa, William P. Barney, Daniel L. Ward, Christian A. Wyenandt, and James E. Simon

. This was also true for other Ocimum species evaluated in this study, including O. × africanum , O. americanum , and O. tenuiflorum . In field trials reported elsewhere, cinnamon, Thai basils, and ‘Red Rubin’ were identified as being less

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Robert M. Pyne, Adolfina R. Koroch, Christian A. Wyenandt, and James E. Simon

and basic chromosome numbers in susceptible O. basilicum accessions and resistant basil species including O. americanum , O. kilimandscharicum , O. gratissimum , and O. tenuiflorum ( Koroch et al., 2010 ; Paton and Putievsky, 1996