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Martin J. Bukovac, Paolo Sabbatini, Philip G. Schwallier, and Michael Schroeder

The discovery of auxins provided the basis for current chemical fruit thinning of apples. The promotion of postbloom fruit abscission was first reported over 60 years ago ( Davidson et al., 1945 ), and since then, synthetic auxins, NAA and its

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Hong Zhu, Eric P. Beers, and Rongcai Yuan

and Palmer, 1982 ; Yuan and Greene, 2000b ). Some researchers reported that the primary mechanism of fruit thinning by chemical thinners such as naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) is the result of reduced carbohydrates

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C.R. Unrath, J.D. Obermiller, A. Green, and S.J. McArtney

preharvest fruit drop can occur independently of fruit ethylene production ( Sun et al., 2009 ). Losses resulting from preharvest fruit drop can be mitigated by applying either naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; Fruitone L; AMVAC Chemical, Newport Beach, CA) or

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Steven McArtney, Dick Unrath, J.D. Obermiller, and Ann Green

efficacy. Various growth regulators have been shown to promote flower bud formation in apple. Harley et al. (1958) reported that flowering in apple was increased by NAA to a greater extent than could be accounted for by fruit removal alone, providing

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Rongcai Yuan and David H. Carbaugh

synthetic auxins reduced preharvest fruit drop of apples ( Gardner et al., 1940 ; Marini et al., 1993 ) and oranges ( Gardner et al., 1950 ; Zur and Goren, 1977 ). One application of naphthalene acidic acid (NAA) may delay apple fruit drop for ≈10 to 14 d

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Rongcai Yuan and Jianguo Li

, color, and cro p value by as much as 20% while maintaining fruit quality ( Byers and Eno, 2002 ). Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis are two compounds that

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Matej Stopar, Brent L. Black, and Martin J. Bukovac

the gift of Accel, Der-I Wang, AMVAC Chemical Corp. for the gift of NAA, and James Flore for loan of his instrumentation and valuable discussion. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal

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Hong Zhu, Rongcai Yuan, Duane W. Greene, and Eric P. Beers

). Increased abscission of young apple fruit caused by the chemical thinner naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) is linked with increased ethylene production; hence, NAA may act in part through ethylene signaling ( Curry, 1991 ; Zhu et al., 2008 ). The pathway of

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Justin A. Schulze, Ryan N. Contreras, and Carolyn F. Scagel

retained on cuttings and any remaining leaves were removed. Retained leaves were bisected to reduce water loss. The basal 5 cm of cuttings were dipped for 10 s in 1030 ppm IBA (0.1%) and 660 ppm (0.066%) NAA dissolved in 9.8% isopropyl alcohol (Woods

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Wagner A. Vendrame, Ian Maguire, and Virginia S. Carvalho

(NAA) combined with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) ( Tokuhara and Mii, 1993 ), thidiazuron (TDZ) ( Ernst, 1994 ), and zeatin ( Park et al., 2003 ). Most of the studies performed to date involve the production of shoots through the formation of protocorm