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Summaira Riaz, Alan C. Tenscher, Brady P. Smith, Daniel A. Ng, and M. Andrew Walker

whether these taxa are best considered subgenera or sections ( Liberty Hyde Bailey Horitorium, 1976 ). Muscadinia species possess very strong resistance to grape pests and diseases ( Olmo, 1986 ), which prompted efforts to cross Muscadinia rotundifolia

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Patrick J. Conner, Gunawati Gunawan, and John R. Clark

Stenospermocarpic seedlessness from Vitis vinifera L. is being introgressed into muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) germplasm through the use of a cross-fertile hybrid of the two species. Recently, a sequence-tagged site (STS) molecular marker, p3_VvAGL11, has been developed which enables detection of the dominant allele controlling stenospermocarpic seedlessness in V. vinifera. This marker was evaluated in six Euvitis Planch. × Muscadinia Planch. hybrid progenies to determine its association with seedlessness in this material. The presence of the 214-bp seedlessness-associated p3_VvAGL11 allele in seedling vines resulted in a nearly 3-fold reduction in mean seed fresh weight (MSFW) and significantly reduced mean seed weight per berry (MSWB), percent berry weight composed of seed (BWCS), and mean berry weight (MBW). When the lack of lignified seed was used as the determinant of seedlessness, the p3_VvAGL11 marker was able to correctly judge seedlessness in ≈85% of the progeny. Analysis of seedlessness in the progenies was hampered by poor vigor and fruiting ability of the hybrid seedlings. The p3_VvAGL11 marker shows potential to speed the introduction of the stenospermocarpic seedlessness into Muscadinia germplasm by identifying seedless progeny at the seedling stage.

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Patrick J. Conner

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Patrick Conner, Joann Conner, Paige Catotti, Jennifer Lewter, John R. Clark, and Luiz A. Biasi

Muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) vines may be male (M), female (F), or hermaphroditic (H). Male flowers have only filaments and anthers, whereas female and hermaphroditic flowers are morphologically perfect. Female flowers are distinguished from hermaphroditic flowers by their reflexed stamens (as opposed to upright) and nonfunctional pollen. Primers derived from previously identified candidate genes located at the sex locus of Vitis vinifera L. were used to generate amplicons from M, F, and H muscadine cultivars. Sequence analysis of the amplicons revealed insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) gene (VR006) and a WRKY transcription factor 21 gene (VR009). Primers were designed to create diagnostic markers for each indel polymorphism. Associations between the marker alleles and the plant sex trait were examined in a wide range of muscadine germplasm and in segregating populations derived from F × H, F × M, and H × H crosses. VR006 produced a codominant marker that was able to differentiate the female-associated allele from the male- and hermaphroditic-associated alleles. The marker was able to detect female plants and will be suitable for screening breeding program progenies. VR009 was able to detect the presence of the female allele in most germplasm, but a crossover event appears to have separated the marker from the sex locus in some germplasm. As shown in previous muscadine genetic studies, H × H-derived populations produced male seedlings. Marker analysis of these populations indicates that male flowers only occur in seedlings which are heterozygous for F- and H-associated marker alleles and inheritance of flower type in muscadine remains unclear.

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Luiz A. Biasi and Patrick J. Conner

Native muscadines (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are dioecious, but muscadine vineyards are usually planted with a mixture of female plants and hermaphroditic pollenizers. Hermaphroditic cultivars are derived from either of two separate sources original hermaphroditic plants, H1 or H2. Nine hermaphroditic and two female cultivars were studied to determine their potential as pollenizers. Inflorescences of each cultivar were collected in the field to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther, and pollen viability and germination in the main and secondary flowering periods. The number of flower clusters per shoot ranged from one to four with most producing two or three flower clusters per shoot. The number of anthers per flower varied by cultivar and cluster position, but in general was between six and eight anthers per flower. ‘Noble’ showed the highest pollen grains production per anther and per flower, reaching 5777 and 39,860, respectively, in the first cluster and ‘Carlos’ produced the least amount of pollen. All cultivars that had secondary flowering showed lower pollen production per anther and per flower as compared with the main flowering period. Optimal muscadine pollen germination media contained 50 mg·L−1 boric acid, 145 mg·L−1 calcium nitrate, 188 g·L−1 sucrose, 10 g·L−1 agar, and 10 mm 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) pH 6.0. The pollen grain viability of hermaphroditic and female cultivars was high, but pollen grain germination was low in hermaphroditic cultivars and absent in female cultivars. H1-derived cultivars produced more flower buds per cluster and higher germination rates than H2-derived cultivars, indicating they may be better pollenizers. Chemical names used: 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES).

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Hong Lin and M. Andrew Walker

The DNA extracted from cambium tissues of grape (Vitis spp., Muscadinia rotundifolia Small) rootstocks was found to be suitable for molecular analysis. Its quality was equivalent to that of DNA extracted from leaf tissues, although the yield was higher from leaves. The use of cambium tissue allows DNA extractions during dormancy or from grafted rootstocks where leaves are not available. The DNA extracted was suitable for restriction enzyme digestion and for analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and simple sequence repeats.

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Pavel Pavloušek

dans l'espéce Vitis vinifera L. d'un caractere de résistance á oidium ( Uncinula necator Schw. Burr.) issu de l'espéce Muscadinia rotundifolia (Michl.) Small Vignevini 12 141 146 Galet, P. 1988 Cépages et vignobles de France, Tome 1. Les vignes