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Mack Thetford, Gary W. Knox, and Edwin R. Duke

.S. Dept. Agr., Natural Resource Conservation Serv., Natl. Plant Data Ctr. Baton Rouge, LA Kirk, S. Belt, S. 2010 Plant fact sheet for hairawn muhly ( Muhlenbergia capillaris ). U.S. Dept. Agr., Natural Resource Conservation Serv Norman A Berg Natl. Plant

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S. Christopher Marble, Matthew T. Elmore, and James T. Brosnan

. (eastern and florida gamagrass) showing a high degree of tolerance and both Muhlenbergia capillaris ‘Pink’ and M. capillaris ‘White Cloud’ showing a high degree of sensitivity. Whereas trends where noted with Tripsacum and Muhlenbergia , differences

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Mack Thetford, Jeffrey G. Norcini, Barry Ballard, and James H. Aldrich

Agriculture 2007a PLANTS profile: Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin 10 Oct. 2007 < http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MUCA2 >. U.S. Department of Agriculture 2007b PLANTS profile: Muhlenbergia filipes M.A. Curtis 10 Oct. 2007 < http

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Sonali R. Padhye and Judith K. Groninger

Three ornamental grasses, each within the families Cyperaceae [leatherleaf sedge (Carex buchananii), ‘Frosted Curls’ sedge (Carex comans), and ‘Toffee Twist’ sedge (Carex flagellifera)] and Poaceae [‘Rosea’ pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana), ‘Gracillimus’ miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis), and muhly grass (Muhlenbergia capillaris)], received two foliar sprays 2 weeks apart of benzyladenine (BA) at 500 or 1000 mg·L−1, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) at 220 mg·L−1, or uniconazole at 20 or 40 mg·L−1. The influence of these spray applications on plant height and tiller number was assessed 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the initial treatment (WAIT). Benzyladenine applications did not suppress the height of leatherleaf sedge or ‘Gracillimus’ miscanthus, yet did suppress the height of the other ornamental grasses by <15% compared to the controls, depending on the concentration used and the time. Applications of BA increased tiller production only in ‘Toffee Twist’ sedge at 2 and 4 WAIT compared to the controls; however, at 8 WAIT, this increase was diminished. Depending on the species, uniconazole suppressed the height of the Cyperaceae grasses by 11% to 22% compared to the controls at 8 WAIT. In Poaceae species, uniconazole suppressed the height of only ‘Rosea’ pampas grass by up to 32% compared to the controls. Uniconazole applications did not increase the tillering of any ornamental grasses tested, except ‘Toffee Twist’ sedge at 8 WAIT. Within Cyperaceae, TE suppressed the height of only ‘Toffee Twist’ sedge compared to the controls, while TE effectively controlled the height of all Poaceae grasses. Based on the species and time, TE application elicited up to 37% height suppression compared to the controls of Poaceae grasses, while it did not influence the tiller number of any ornamental grasses in this study.

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Judson S. LeCompte, Amy N. Wright, Charlene M. LeBleu, and J. Raymond Kessler

Greywater is a renewable irrigation alternative to potable water; however, its use as an irrigation source is limited by the potential for salt injury to plants. Research was conducted to determine salt tolerance of three common landscape species, small anise tree (Illicium parviflorum), ‘Henry’s Garnet’ sweetspire (Itea virginica), and muhly grass (Muhlenbergia capillaris). Two experiments were performed, one with high sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations and one with low NaCl concentrations. Plants received daily irrigation of tap water containing one of the following NaCl concentrations: 0 (tap water); 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, or 10,000 mg·L−1 (high NaCl); or 0 (tap water), 250, 500, or 1000 mg·L−1 (low NaCl) for 15 weeks. Plants were harvested after 5, 10, or 15 weeks. Root dry weight (RDW) and shoot dry weight (SDW) were determined at each harvest; survival was determined at experiment termination. Leaf tissue was analyzed for tissue macronutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and, magnesium (Mg)], sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl) concentrations in the high NaCl concentration experiment. With high NaCl, RDW and SDW decreased with increasing NaCl for all species. Anise and sweetspire had low or no survival, respectively, at the highest NaCl concentration; muhly grass had 100% survival regardless of treatment. In general, leaf macronutrient, Na, and Cl increased with increasing NaCl concentration. With low NaCl, there was no effect of NaCl concentration on RDW or SDW for all species. All three species continued to grow between harvest dates in the lower NaCl concentration experiment, whereas only anise and muhly grass continued to grow with high NaCl. Anise and muhly grass were tolerant of saline irrigation that could be expected from greywater. Sweetspire exhibited symptoms of salt stress (necrotic leaves and leaf drop, visual observation) at all NaCl concentrations including the lowest (250 mg·L−1), and should not be irrigated with saline water.

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Youping Sun and Alyssa Lanae Palmer

Ornamental grasses are popular in urban landscapes in Utah and the Intermountain West United States, one of the driest and fastest growing regions in the United States. This experiment evaluated the responses of five ornamental grass species [blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), indian sea oats (Chasmanthium latifolium), ‘Blue Dune’ sand ryegrass (Leymus arenarius), pink muhly grass (Muhlenbergia capillaris), ‘Foxtrot’ fountain grass (Pennisetum alopecuroides)] and two ornamental grasslike species [fox sedge (Carex vulpinoidea), common rush (Juncus effusus)] to saline irrigation water in a greenhouse. Plants were irrigated weekly with a nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m–1 (control) or saline solutions at an EC of 5.0 or 10.0 dS·m–1. At the first harvest (9 weeks after the initiation of treatment), sand ryegrass, pink muhly grass, and fountain grass irrigated with solutions at an EC of 5.0 and 10 dS·m–1 had good visual quality with no or minimal foliar salt damage; however, the remaining species exhibited slight or moderate foliar salt damage. There were no significant differences in shoot dry weight (DW) among treatments within any species, except fox sedge and fountain grass. At the second harvest (18 weeks after the initiation of treatment), sand ryegrass, pink muhly grass, and fountain grass still had no or minimal foliar salt damage, and indian sea oats and fox sedge exhibited slight or moderate foliar salt damage. Compared with the control, all species irrigated with solutions at an EC of 10.0 dS·m–1 had reduced shoot DWs with the exception of blue grama. However, only common rush and pink muhly grass irrigated with solutions at an EC of 5.0 dS·m–1 had lower shoot DWs than the control. These results demonstrated that seven ornamental grass or grasslike species had a very strong tolerance to the salinity levels used in the 4-month experiment. Although plant growth was inhibited as a result of saline irrigation, plant visual quality of sand ryegrass, pink muhly grass, and fountain grass was still acceptable. These three species appear to be more suitable for landscapes in which saline irrigation water is used. Further research is needed to evaluate more ornamental grasses for landscapes in salt-prone areas and nearby coastal regions.

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Yuxiang Wang, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Chaoyi Deng, Yi Wang, and Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

-season grasses usually have less salt tolerance than warm-season grasses ( Schiavon et al., 2012 , 2014 ). In a 4-month experiment, Leymus arenarius (L.) Hochst. (sand ryegrass), Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. (pink muhly grass), and Pennisetum

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Haifeng Xing, Julie Hershkowitz, Asmita Paudel, Youping Sun, Ji Jhong Chen, Xin Dai, and Matthew Chappell

a highly tolerant species. Muhlenbergia capillaris (pink muhly grass) can grow when irrigated with 10,000 mg·L –1 NaCl (≈12.5 dS·m –1 ) solution ( LeCompte et al., 2016 ). Similarly, Wang et al. (2019) reported that Eragrostis spectabilis

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Shital Poudyal and Bert M. Cregg

muhly ( Muhlenbergia capillaris ), but isoxaben application produced phytotoxic symptoms when the dose was increased to 2 lb/acre ( Vea and Palmer, 2017b ). Growth stages and plant parts . The sensitivity of nursery crops to pesticides is likely to vary