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A.R. Jamieson, N.L. Nickerson, C.F. Forney, K.A. Sanford, and D.L. Craig

with experimental design and analysis. We thank the following cooperators who evaluated 'Mira' for suitability to their area: J-P. Privé and R. Tremblay (New Brunswick), K. Sanderson (Prince Edward Island), P. Hendrickson (Newfoundland), C. Davidson

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Fachun Guan, Shiping Wang, Rongqin Li, Mu Peng, and Fanjuan Meng

rigorous conditions and inaccessibility of the Tibetan Plateau, few studies regarding the genetic diversity in plant populations have been conducted ( Guo et al., 2006 ). Prunus mira Koehne ( Prunus mira Koehne Kov et. Kpst) has been recognized as an

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Michelle Wirthensohn

’, ‘Carina’, ‘Maxima’, ‘Mira’, ‘Rhea’, and ‘Vela’ all outperform the benchmark cultivar Nonpareil in yield, with four being self-fertile. The earlier flowering cultivars offer a replacement for ‘Price’, and the later flowering cultivars offer a replacement

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Gabriela Vuletin Selak, Slavko Perica, Smiljana Goreta Ban, Mira Radunic, and Milan Poljak

Olive orchard productivity largely depends on the choice of planted cultivars and their pollination needs. Orchard designs in Croatia are changing because a number of valuable foreign olive cultivars, mostly Italian, have been introduced in this region in the last 30 years. The compatibility relationships of introduced cultivars with autochthonous cultivars are unknown. With the objective of studying reproductive behavior of the most important Croatian cultivars (Drobnica, Lastovka, Levantinka, and Oblica) and their cross-pollination to recently introduced Italian cultivars Leccino and Pendolino, initial and final fruit set in self-pollination versus cross-pollination and free pollination were compared during three flowering seasons. Experiments were conducted in three different orchards (Kastela, Mravince, and Brac) to identify the effect of the environment on reproductive behavior of olive cultivars. The differences of fruit set in five olive cultivars after tested pollination treatments appeared at the time of initial fruit set. Increased final fruit set under cross-pollinations was observed when compared with self-pollination for all olive cultivars in all experimental orchards. In the Mravince orchard, a positive response to cross-pollination was consistent, and fruit set increased under cross-pollination in all cultivars and years with the exception of ‘Levantinka’ in which no significant differences were noticed between self-pollination treatment and cross-pollination treatments in 2005. Variable self-fertility behavior from season to season was found for tested cultivars. A self-incompatibility index (ISI) higher than 0.1 was recorded for ‘Levantinka’ in all experimental years and, therefore, classified it as a partially self-incompatible cultivar. Self-incompatibility response was observed for ‘Lastovka’. The positive response to cross-pollination over self-pollination only in some experimental years classified ‘Drobnica’, ‘Leccino’, and ‘Oblica’ as partially self-incompatible. Results obtained from this study indicated that pollination efficiency is strictly combination-specific. The Italian cultivar, Leccino, was a successful pollen acceptor and pollenizer of most Croatian cultivars. Reciprocal high success in cross-pollination was recorded for ‘Levantinka’ and ‘Oblica’. In the Mravince orchard, ‘Lastovka’, ‘Leccino’, and ‘Oblica’ were efficient pollenizers of ‘Levantinka’ where the simultaneous flowering period was in accordance with their cross-compatibility. ‘Levantinka’ was a good pollenizer for ‘Lastovka’ in the Mravince orchard, and both cultivars entered into the flowering period earlier than other studied cultivars, which was not the case in the other two orchards. The variations in flowering timing among orchards were a consequence of differences in environmental conditions. According to the high fruit sets recorded in ‘Oblica’ after pollination with ‘Leccino’ or ‘Levantinka’, an increase in tree productivity of the acceptor cultivar is expected in the presence of selected pollenizers in all olive-growing regions.

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Zuguo Cai, Wenfang Zeng, Liang Niu, Zhenhua Lu, Guochao Cui, Yunqin Zhu, Lei Pan, Yifeng Ding, and Zhiqiang Wang

cultivars disseminating to Central Asia, the Mediterranean coast, Europe, America, and Japan ( Layne and Bassi, 2008 ; Wang and Zhuang, 2001 ). The main relatives of cultivated peach, namely P. mira , P. davidiana , P. kansuensis , and P. ferganensis

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Juan C. Díaz-Pérez, Dan MacLean, Smiljana Goreta, Sarah Workman, Erick Smith, Harwinder Singh Sidhu, Gunawati Gunawan, Anthony Bateman, Jesús Bautista, William Lovett, Maja Jukić Špika, Gvozden Dumičić, and Mira Radunić

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a nonclimacteric fruit sold fresh as whole fruit or arils (fleshy seeds). It is also used for the production of juice, wine, and syrup. Pomegranate is popular due to its numerous health benefits. In the United States, it is grown primarily in California and other semi-arid regions, with Wonderful being the most widely grown cultivar. However, preliminary research has shown that ‘Wonderful’ produces low yields in Georgia, thus indicating the need to identify cultivars better suited for warm and humid conditions, such as those of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical quality attributes of pomegranate cultivars grown in Georgia. Pomegranate fruit from 40 cultivars were harvested during 2012 to 2017. Individual fruit weight varied from 124 g for ‘Utah Sweet’ to 631 g for ‘C1’. The total fruit weight percentage accounted for by fresh aril weight (aril fraction) ranged from 22% for ‘C8’ to 70% for ‘JC’. Individual aril weight ranged from 174 mg for ‘Utah Sweet’ to 638 mg for ‘Cloud’. Across cultivars, individual fruit weight increased linearly with the increasing number of arils. Aril color varied from white to deep red. The arils L* value ranged from 15.7 (dark arils) for ‘Crown Jewel’ to 46.1 (light arils) for ‘Utah Sweet’. The a* values ranged from 0.6 (white arils) for ‘Cloud’ to 20.5 (red arils) for ‘Crab’. The b* values ranged from 8.7 for ‘DJ Forry’ (from a store) to 62.5 for ‘R9’. The Chroma* values ranged from 13.4 for ‘Cloud’ to 24.3 for ‘Crab’. The hue° values ranged from 29.7 for ‘Wonderful’ (from a store) to 87.1 for ‘Cloud’. Rind color was related to the color of the arils; high a* values in the rind and arils were associated with the red color. The fruit juice content ranged from 174 mL·kg−1 fruit for ‘Utah Sweet’ to 638 mL·kg−1 fruit for ‘Cloud’. Cultivars varied from tart to sweet. The fruit soluble solids concentration (SSC) ranged from 10.8% for ‘Sin Pepe’ to 16.4% for ‘Crown Jewel’. Fruit titratable acid (TA) ranged from 0.27% for ‘Sin Pepe’ to 6.20% for ‘Utah Sweet’. The juice maturity index measured as the SSC/TA ratio ranged from 1.9 for ‘Utah Sweet’ to 39.5 for ‘Sin Pepe’. The juice total phenols (measured as gallic acid equivalents) ranged from 463 mg·L−1 for ‘JC’ to 2468 mg·L−1 for ‘Wonderful’ (Georgia). Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values of juice ranged from 10,001 µM for ‘King’ to 59,821 µM for ‘I11’. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity values in juice ranged from 7471 µM for ‘Azadi’ to 20,576 µM for ‘Wonderful’ (Georgia). Juice total anthocyanins varied from 1.7 mg·L−1 for ‘R19’ to 50.0 mg·L−1 for ‘Wonderful’ (Georgia). Pomegranate cultivars showed large variability in physical and chemical attributes. Such pomegranate variability represents opportunities for breeding, for the retail market, and for the development of different products by the food industry.

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Chunxian Chen and William R. Okie

Chinese peach species) which appears to be a hybrid with peach. MLG-8 is represented by a clone of P. mira , a peach species native to China and Nepal. Among the duplicated samples, all the sets, including ‘Augustprince’, ‘Black Boy’, ‘Camden’, ‘Candy

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Jose X. Chaparro, Ronald R. Sederoff, and Dennis J. Werner

Total cellular DNA has been extracted from leaves and\or seed of Prunus dulcis, P. persica, P. mira, P. davidiana, P. persica subsp. ferganensis, and P. triloba. Chloroplast restriction fragments have been visualized by Southern blot analysis using heterologous probes from a petunia chloroplast library. Analysis of preliminary data separates the species into three groups. The first contains P. dulcis, P. mira, and P. davidiana; the second P. kansuensis, P. persica, and P. persica subsp. ferganensis; and the third P. triloba.

PCR amplification using oligos for cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase yields genomic fragments approximately 1kb in size from P. dulcis and P. triloba. Sequence analysis will be performed to determine species relationships at the gene level.

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Steven B. Polter, Douglas Doohan, and Joseph C. Scheerens

Terbacil at 0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 oz/acre (0, 0.06, 0.11, 0.22, and 0.45 kg·ha-1) a.i. was applied immediately after planting, at the thee-leaf stage and at the six-leaf stage to greenhouse grown strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars Jewel, Mira, and Allstar. Strawberry was most tolerant of terbacil when the herbicide was applied before leaf emergence. `Mira' was more tolerant of terbacil than was `Jewel'. `Jewel' and `Allstar' exhibited similar levels of tolerance. In a second experiment terbacil at 4.8 oz/acre (0.34 kg·ha-1) was applied to the soil, to the foliage, and to the foliage followed by a water rinse. Injury was greatest when terbacil was applied directly to the strawberry foliage rather than to the soil, but was minimal when foliage was rinsed after application. In a final experiment terbacil at 4.8 oz/acre was applied to greenhouse-grown `Jewel' strawberries at the thee-leaf stage followed by a water rinse 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 hours after application. Rinsing the foliage of strawberry plants after application significantly reduced leaf injury. Delaying the rinse up to 4 hours did not lead to increased injury. Over all, the results from our study indicate the potential for using terbacil as an effective herbicide on newly established strawberries, especially if the compound is rinsed from leaves (if present) after treatment.

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Costanza Zavalloni, Jeffrey A. Andresen, and J.A. Flore

1 Department of Geography. 2 Department of Horticulture. The authors would like to thank Dr. Charlie Edson, Dr. Lynn Sage, Jim Nugent, Dr. Bill Shane, Dr. Mira Danilovich, and numerous growers for providing phenological observations. The authors