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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Charles L. Cantrell, Tess Astatkie, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

‘Scotch’ spearmint ( Mentha × gracilis Sole. = M. cardiaca L.) and ‘Native’ spearmint ( Mentha spicata L.) are well-known and widely grown essential oil crops in many countries, including the United States ( Bienvenu et al., 1999 ; Lawrence

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Brent Tisseret* and Steven Vaughn

The influence of altering the physical environment on the growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (leaf, root, and shoot numbers) and secondary metabolism (i.e., volatile monoterpene, and carvone) of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) shoots cultured on MS medium was studied. The type of physical support (e.g., agar, liquid, platforms, or glass supports) using Magenta vessels altered growth and morphogenesis. Mint shoots grown on liquid produced 4-x fold more fresh weight than on agar. Carvone levels were unaffected physical supports. Increasing the frequency of media replacement significantly increased growth without altering carvone. Vessel size influence was tested by culturing shoots on culture tubes, Magenta vessels and ½-gal. jars. Positive correlations occurred between vessel capacity and culture growth, morphogenesis and carvone levels. A comparative study testing several spearmint cultivars on either culture tubes or an automated plant culture system (APCS, a sterile hydroponics system) was conducted. The APCS produced more biomass (e.g., ≈15-x fold increase in fresh weight), morphogenesis and carvone than employing culture tubes. Carvone was only produced from shoots and was absent in either roots or callus. Carvone levels decreased proportionally in shoots as the distance from the shoot terminus increased. Altering the number of media culture immersions (4, 8, 12, or 16 immersions/day) with the APCS was tested. Twelve immersions of media/day was optimum. Higher culture growth rates resulted in lower carvone levels/culture; however, overall carvone levels/vessel increased due to greater biomass production.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Thomas Horgan, and S. Marie Rogers

turkey meat to inhibit lipid oxidation and the development of rancid off-flavors ( Mielnik et al., 2008 ). We hypothesized that residual distillation water could have an effect on peppermint ( Mentha × piperita L.) and spearmint ( Mentha spicata L

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

The United States is a major producer of EO from peppermint ( Mentha × piperita L.) and spearmints such as ‘Native’ spearmint ( Mentha spicata L.) and ‘Scotch’ spearmint ( Mentha × gracilis Sole.; syn. M. cardiaca L.) [ Lawrence, 2006 ; Mint

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

‘Native’ spearmint, Mentha spicata L., is one of the two widely grown spearmints in the United States and throughout the world ( Bienvenu et al., 1999 ; Lawrence, 2006 ; Topalov, 1989 ). The other spearmint is ‘Scotch’ spearmint, which actually

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Annika E. Kohler and Roberto G. Lopez

. Materials and Methods Stock plants and environment. Stock plants of Greek oregano ( Origanum vulgare var. hirtum ), sage ‘Extrakta’, and thyme ‘German Winter’ (Johnny’s Selected Seeds, Fairfield, ME), spearmint ‘Spanish’ ( Mentha spicata ) (Hishtil, Afula

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Steven F. Vaughn, Mark A. Berhow, and Brent Tisserat

( Tagetes patula L.), and spearmint ( Mentha spicata L.) seeds were obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, ARS, National Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR, and were planted in Cone-tainers (Hummert International, Earth City, MO; 25-mm diameter

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Brent Tisserat and Amy Stuff

of a greenhouse. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L. ‘Chantenay’), Dwarf Corn ( Zea mays L. cv. Gaspé Flint) seeds, and spearmint ( Mentha spicata L. PI # ‘294099’) plantlets as sterile shoot cuttings were used

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J.M. Van Eck and S.L. Kitto

Plant regeneration from callus cultures of mint depended on expiant source, genotype, and culture medium components. Mature embryos, seedling and flower parts, as well as chilled or desiccated immature embryos of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) were cultured on a Murashige-Skoog medium containing various combinations of growth factors. Shoots regenerated from callus that developed either on mature peppermint embryos cultured on medium that contained BA at 0.5 mg·liter-1 and NAA at 0.5 mg·liter-1 or on immature peppermint embryos (chilled at SC for 0.6 day or nonchilled) cultured on basal medium containing BA at 1 mg·liter-1 and TIBA at 1 mg·liter-1 Shoots were proliferated, rooted, and acclimated. with 100% survival under greenhouse conditions. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA).

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Charleson R Poovaiah, Stephen C Weller, and Matthew A Jenks

An in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) using internodal explants. Shoot regeneration from internodes was evaluated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with individual cytokinins thidiazuron (TDZ), benzylaminopurine (BA), kinetin (KT), or zeatin (ZT) or various pair wise combinations of these. The highest regeneration was achieved by the second internode on a medium containing MS basal salts, B5 vitamins, 10% coconut water, 1.0 mg·L–1 TDZ, 2.5 mg·L–1 ZT, and solidified with 0.2% phytagel. Unlike previous protocols this medium does not need sub culturing and produces elongated shoots in 4 weeks, rather than 6 weeks. Maximum number of shoots (36 per explant after 4 weeks) was observed when internodes from 2-week-old stock plants were used as explant source. The shoots were removed and roots were initiated on medium containing MS basal salts, 0.4 mg·L–1 thiamine-HCL, 100 mg·L–1 myo-inositol, 7.5 g·L–1 agar and 0.01 mg·L–1 ∝-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and then plants were transferred to the greenhouse 2 weeks after root initiation, where 100% of the plantlets developed into healthy plants.