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Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Adam D. Henk, Ann Reilley, Diane D. Miller, and Philip L. Forsline

The wild apple species Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. is native to xeric regions and high mountain ranges of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, China, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan ( Yan et al., 2008 ). With a wide range of edible

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Chunyu Zhang, Xuesen Chen, Hongwei Song, Yinghai Liang, Chenhui Zhao, and Honglian Li

Apple ( Malus pumila ) is a fruit crop of major economic importance. In worldwide apple breeding efforts, apple breeders typically intercross elite or commercial cultivars, such as Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, and Jonathan, which results in

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Briana L. Gross, Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Patrick A. Reeves, Adam D. Henk, Philip L. Forsline, Amy Szewc-McFadden, Gennaro Fazio, and C. Thomas Chao

et al., 2012 ). Apple ( Malus × domestica ) is a globally produced clonal crop for which field collections play a crucial role in preserving genetic diversity and providing breeding material. In particular, apple production is currently threatened by

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Janna Beckerman, James Chatfield, and Erik Draper

The genus Malus includes both commercial apple and crabapple with the primary difference between them being fruit size; crabapple fruit is less than 2 inches in diameter, whereas commercial apples have fruit greater than 2 inches. Although apple

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Kanin J. Routson, Ann A. Reilley, Adam D. Henk, and Gayle M. Volk

( Hancock, 1999 ). Gianfranceschi et al. (1998) , Hokanson et al. (1998) , and Hemmat et al. (2003) were instrumental in developing Malus -specific microsatellites in the United States. In Europe, Silfverberg-Dilworth et al. (2006) and the High

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Kai Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Ma, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Hongyan Dai, and Zhihong Zhang

Agricultural University (Shenyang, China), was used for plant transformation and isolation of GA20-ox genes. Cultures were maintained at 23 °C day/18 °C night under a 16-h photoperiod. In vitro plants of Malus hupehensis ‘Pingyitiancha’ were maintained

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Ying Li, Liyi Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Peihua Cong, and Zong-Ming Cheng

and Malus species for resistance to alternaria blotch and established a modified six-class disease scale for the rating system. Although use of fungicides such as mancozeb, ziram, thiram, oxine-copper, iminoctadine, difenoconazole, tebuconazole

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Mingjun Li, Xuesen Chen, Pingping Wang, and Fengwang Ma

Methods Plant materials. Eight-year-old ‘Gala’ apple trees grafted onto rootstock Malus sieversii were trained as a central leader system and grown at a density of 2 × 4 m in an experimental orchard at the Horticultural Experimental Station of Northwest

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Christopher M. Richards, Gayle M. Volk, Patrick A. Reeves, Ann A. Reilley, Adam D. Henk, Philip L. Forsline, and Herb S. Aldwinckle

exploration teams collected Malus sieversii seeds and clones from Kazakhstan between 1989 and 1996 ( Dzhangaliev, 2003 ; Forsline et al., 2003 ; Hokanson et al., 1997 ; Luby et al., 2001 ). Over one thousand trees derived from seeds collected during these

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Carole L. Bassett, D. Michael Glenn, Philip L. Forsline, Michael E. Wisniewski, and Robert E. Farrell Jr

then by humans over the silk road trade routes into Europe. The modern cultivated apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) is believed to have been domesticated in Turkestan, now Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan ( Harris et al