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David R. Rudell and James P. Mattheis

`Golden Delicious' apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.)] cortex disks suspended in solutions containing a nitric oxide (•NO) donor [S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)], •NO gas, or nitrite (KNO2) were used to identify impacts of •NO on ethylene production and NO2 on •NO and ethylene production. Treatment with GSNO or SNP reduced ethylene biosynthesis compared with control treatments containing equimolar concentrations of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or Na4(CN)6 respectively. Apple disk exposure to •NO gas did not impact ethylene production. Treatment with NO2 resulted in increased •NO production and decreased ethylene biosynthesis. Generation of •NO increased linearly whereas ethylene generation decreased exponentially with increasing NO2 treatment concentration. •NO was enhanced in autoclaved tissue disks treated with NO2 , suggesting that its production is produced at least in part by nonenzymatic means. Although this evidence shows •NO is readily generated in apple fruit disks by NO2 treatment, and ethylene synthesis is reduced by •NO/NO2 generated in solution, the exact nature of •NO generation from NO2 and ethylene synthesis modulation in apple fruit disks remains to be elucidated.

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Kevin R. Kosola, Beth Ann A. Workmaster, James S. Busse, and Jeffrey H. Gilman

roots from apple trees [ Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] at the University of Wisconsin Peninsular Agricultural Experiment Station near Sturgeon Bay (lat. 44°52′51.96″ N, long. 87°20′7.8″ E) on 13 May 2004. The soil type was an Emmet

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David R. Rudell, John K. Fellman, and James P. Mattheis

Repeated preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MJ) to 'Fuji' apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit were evaluated for impacts on peel color, size, fruit finish, and maturation. MJ treatments at 2 week intervals began 48 days after full bloom (DAFB) (early season) or 119 DAFB (late season) and fruit were harvested 172 DAFB. MJ treatment stimulated significant increases in peel red color following the initial application and thereafter. Early season MJ treatment reduced fruit diameter and length to diameter ratio but slowed softening and starch hydrolysis. Fruit receiving late season MJ treatments had increased incidence of bitter pit and splitting, shorter green life, and slower softening. Results suggest preharvest application of MJ impacts apple color development and other aspects of fruit quality. Chemical name used: methyl 3-oxo-2-(2-pentenyl)cyclopentane-1-acetate (methyl jasmonate).

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Luiz Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James Mattheis

The efficacy of the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) applied in water to slow ripening of `Golden Delicious' [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] apples was evaluated in comparison with 1-MCP applied as a gas in air. The material was applied by dipping fruit in 1-MCP water solutions (0, 0.03, 0.3 or 3 μM) for 4 min, or by exposing fruit to 1-MCP gas (0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μL·L-1) in air for 12 h. Fruit were held in air at 20 °C for 25 days after treatment or stored at 0.5 °C in air for up to 6 months followed by 7 days in air at 20 °C. Application of 1-MCP in water or air delayed the increase in respiration and ethylene production associated with fruit ripening, and reduced the amount of fruit softening, loss of acidity and change in peel color. Treatments applied in water required a concentration 700-fold higher compared to those applied in air to induce similar physiological responses. Fruit responses to 1-MCP varied with treatment concentration, and the maximum effects were obtained at concentrations of 0.1 or 1 μL·L-1 in air and 3 μM in water. Peel color change was impacted less than retention of firmness and titratable acidity for some 1-MCP treatments. Treatment with 1-MCP was less effective for slowing peel degreening when treated fruit were stored at 0.5 °C compared to storage at 20 °C. In 1 of the 3 years of this study, fruit treated with 1-MCP and stored in air at 0.5 °C developed a peel disorder typified by a gray-brown discoloration that is unlike other disorders previously reported for this cultivar.

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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

The efficacy of the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) applied in water to slow ripening of ‘Golden Delicious’ [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] apples was evaluated in comparison with 1-MCP applied in air. The material was applied by dipping fruit in 1-MCP water solutions (0.03, 0.3, or 3 mmol·m−3) for 4 min or by exposing fruit to 1-MCP gas (0.42, 4.2, or 42 μmol·m−3) in air for 12 h. Fruit were held in air at 20 °C for 25 days after treatment or stored at 0.5 °C in air for up to 6 months followed by 7 days in air at 20 °C. Application of 1-MCP in water or air delayed the increase in respiration and ethylene production associated with fruit ripening and reduced the amount of fruit softening, loss of acidity, and change in peel color. Treatments applied in water required a 700-fold higher amount of active ingredient compared with treatments applied in air to induce similar physiological responses. Fruit responses to 1-MCP varied with treatment concentration, and the maximum effects were obtained at concentrations of 4.2 or 42 μmol·m−3 in air and 3 mmol·m−3 in water. Peel color change was impacted less than retention of firmness and titratable acidity for 1-MCP treatments applied at concentrations of 4.2 or 42 μmol·m−3 in air and 0.3 or 3 mmol·m−3 in water. Treatment with 1-MCP in air or water was less effective for slowing peel degreening when treated fruit were stored at 0.5 °C compared with storage at 20 °C. Fruit treated with 1-MCP and stored in air at 0.5 °C developed a peel disorder typified by a gray·brown discoloration that is unlike other disorders previously reported for this cultivar. Symptoms were present when fruit were removed from cold storage and no change in symptom appearance was observed during a 7-d holding period at 20 °C.

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Bradley J. Rickard, David R. Rudell, and Christopher B. Watkins

costs if fewer materials are needed in storage. Here, we focus specifically on firm flesh browning of the ‘Empire’ apple ( Malus sylvestris var. domestica Borkh.), which is a major cause of revenue loss for growers and storage operators in New York