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Aroldo Isudro Rumayor Flores*, Jose Antonio Vázquez Ramos, Martínez Cano Andres and Borrego Escalante Fernando

In hybrids of apple (Malus × domestica Bork.) subjected to study phenological in Aguanueva, Coahuila, Mexico, their requirements of chill hours (CH), heat units (HU), bud breaking flower and vegetative % (BB) for good adaptation to warm milder climate, bloom period (BP), and vegetative period (VP), were determined using the Methodology of Identification of New Cultivars of Fruit Breeding (Ploudiv 1983). They were material with requirements of cold from 200 up to 650 (CH) when they underwent a test of controlled conditions of (CH). These materials are; AR-109 (200 CH), AR-106 (300 CH), AR-108 (300 CH), AR-147 (300 CH), AR-144 (550 CH), and AR-a60 (650 CH), while the control Mutant Aguanueva II (500 CH). Under winter conditions of the year 2000 with so slone 168.76 (CH), some materials showed a bud break superior to the control. The bud break dates understand between 30 days before the witness Aguanueva II, as the hybrid AR-147 and 34 days later in the case of the hybrid AR-151, location this way to the materials as: Early with regard to the control; AR-16-S (24 days), AR-130 (14 days) and AR-147 (30 days). Similar to the control; AR-144, AR-103 and AR-127. Later than the control; AR-111 and AR-103-B. since they don't require spray bud breaking res compounds for their bud break and they have bloom period (BP) of 8 to 21 days. And when presenting low chill requirements they will be set fruit in a microclimate frost-free and growing and have their cultivation in a mild winter climate.

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Travis Robert Alexander, Jacqueline King, Andrew Zimmerman and Carol A. Miles

Cider is fermented apple ( Malus ×domestica Borkh.) juice, and is often referred to as hard cider in the United States in contrast to the nonfermented, unfiltered apple juice that is referred to as fresh cider or sweet cider ( Khanizadeh et al

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Jose A. Yuri, Claudia Moggia, Carolina A. Torres, Alvaro Sepulveda, Valeria Lepe and Jose L. Vasquez

locations in Chile. Materials and Methods Plant material. A set of seven apple ( Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars (‘Galaxy’, ‘Brookfield ® Gala’, ‘Super Chief’, ‘Fuji Raku Raku’, ‘Braeburn’, ‘Granny Smith’, and ‘Cripp's Pink’) grafted on two virus

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Mehdi Sharifi, Julia Reekie, Andrew Hammermeister, Mohammed Zahidul Alam and Taylor MacKey

performance in an organic apple ( Malus domestica Borkh) orchard in northern Patagonia Plant Soil 292 193 203 Schmid, A. Weibel, F. 2000 Das Sandwich-System–ein Verfahren zur herbizidfreien Baumstreifenbewirtschaftung? [The Sandwich System, a procedure for

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Fenton E. Larsen and Stewart S. Higgins

Tree size, cumulative yield, yield efficiency and anchorage of 6 micropropagated (MP) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were determined in 1991 after 5 years of production, as compared with trees on seedling (sdlg) or M 7a roots. Trees were planted in 1984, with crops harvested from 1987 through 1991. Trees were generally smallest (trunk cross-sectional area) on M 7a and were largest with 4 cultivars (`Delicious', `Jonathan', `Rome', `Spartan') when micropropagated. `Golden Delicious' (GD) was largest on sdlg. Cumulative yield was affected by a scion × rootstock interaction, with few trends in scion or rootstock effects. Mean cumulative yield was 84 kg tree-1, 71 and 58 for M 7a, MP and sdlg, respectively. Yield efficiency was also affected by a scion × rootstock interaction. In 1991, mean yield efficiency was 0.5 kg cm-2 for sdlg and MP trees, but was 1.05 for M 7a. Efficiency on M 7a was superior to other rootstocks with all scions except `GD', while sdlg and MP trees were statistically similar with all scions. All trees leaned in response to prevailing westerly winds, with trees on sdlg tending to be more upright than MP or M 7a trees.

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Nobuko Sugimoto and Randy Beaudry

The objective of the experiment was to determine developmental changes in major aroma profiles in `Jonagold' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) and analyze climacteric fruit characteristics. Changes in internal ethylene production, respiration, skin color, texture, and aroma concentration were measured during maturation and ripening of `Jonagold' apple fruit. Patterns for skin color, starch, and internal ethylene content were typical for the variety. Volatile compounds and CO2 increased after a rapid increase in ethylene production. Total ester emission peak coincided with fruit softening. Hexyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, butyl acetate, and hexyl 2-methylbutanoate were found to be the major volatile compounds detected by GC/MS. Long chain esters, such as hexyl acetate and butyl acetate, contributed during the early stages of ripening and short chain esters such as n-propyl acetate and butyl propanoate increased later. Esters are formed by combining alcohol moiety with CoA derivative of fatty acid moiety by the action of alcohol acyl transferase (AAT). The alcohols butanol, 2-methylbutanol, propanol, and hexanol increased at an earlier developmental stage than the esters for which they acted as substrates.

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James F. Harbage and Dennis P. Stimart

Many physiological responses in plants are influenced by pH. The present chemiosmotic hypothesis suggests that auxin uptake into plant cells is governed by pH. Since auxin is used widely to enhance rooting, the influence of pH on 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) induced adventitious root formation was examined. Roots were initiated aseptically in 5 node apical shoot cuttings of micropropagated Malus domestica 'Gala'. Initiation was induced using a four day pulse in IBA and 15 g/L sucrose at pH 5.6 and 30C in the dark. Observations showed pH rose to 7.0 or greater within 1 to 2 days from microcutting placement in unbuffered initiation medium. Root numbers from shoots in media containing 1.5 μM IBA buffered with 10 mM 2[N-morpholino] ethanesulfonic acid (MES) to pH 5.5, 6.0, 6.5 or 7.0 with KOH resulted in average root numbers of 14.2, 10.9, 8.7, and 7.1, respectively, while unbuffered medium yielded 7,6 roots per shoot. Comparison of MES buffered medium at pH 5.5, 6.25 or 7.0 in factorial combination with IBA at 0, 0.15, 1.5, 15.0, and 150.0 μM resulted in a significant pH by IBA interaction for root number. At 0, 0.15 and 1.5 μM IBA root numbers were greatest at pH 5.5. At 15.0 μM IBA, pH 6.25 was optimal and at 150.0 μM IBA all three pH levels produced equivalent root numbers. A calorimetric assay to measure IBA removal from the initiation medium by microcuttings of `Gala' and `Triple Red Delicious' showed more IBA removal at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.0. Possible reasons for the effect of pH on adventitious root formation will be discussed.

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Fuad Gasi, Silvio Simon, Naris Pojskic, Mirsad Kurtovic, Ivan Pejic, Mekjell Meland and Clive Kaiser

. Talaie, A. Oraguzie, C.N. Fatahi, R. Hajnajari, H. Wiedow, C. Gardiner, S.E. 2009 Genetic identity and relationships of Iranian apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivars and landraces, wild Malus species and representative old apple cultivars based

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Jan Bizjak, Nika Weber, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Ana Slatnar, Franci Stampar, Zobayer Alam, Karl Stich, Heidi Halbwirth and Robert Veberic

mechanism, by which P-containing compounds affect the red coloration of apples. Materials and Methods Plant materials. The experiment was carried out in 2011 on 10-year-old trees of striped ‘Braeburn’ ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivar clone Hillwell

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S. Mantha, H. Desilets, J.-A. Rioux, S. Gagne, S. Parent and P. Moutoglis

Two experiments with Malus domestica sp. were planted in 1997 at the Laval Univ. experimental farm located south of the St. Lawrence river near Quebec City. These experiments examined the association of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices with Malus domestica sp. The first experiment compared the vegetative growth of `McIntosh' apple trees on M.106 rootstock in presence or absence of a commercial inoculum of G. intraradices (Premier Tech, Riviere-du-Loup, Quebec) under three levels of phosphorus fertilization (P) to the soil (0%, 50%, and 100% of the usual recommandation for this crop). After two seasons, all the treatments had better growth than the control (0% P without G. intraradices). The best treatment was achieved with 100% of the P associated with mycorrhizal inoculation. The second experiment compared the vegetative growth of three apple rootstocks Bud.9, M.26, and M.106, inoculated with G. intraradices under the same three P levels as the preceding experiment. Uninoculated rootstocks receiving the usual phosphorus fertilization served as control. Two roostocks, M.26 and M.106, increased growth with G. intraradices, while the third one, Bud.9, did not respond to the presence of mycorrhizal fungus.