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Wesley T. Watson*, David N. Appel, Michael A. Arnold, Charles M. Kenerley and James L. Starr

Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (Duggar) Hennebert (syn. Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar) is a recalcitrant soilborne pathogen that causes serious root rot problems on numerous plant species in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Apple trees [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. (syn. M. domestica Borkh. non Poir.)] are highly susceptible to P. omnivora with most tree death occurring in the summer months. Studies were conducted from 1996 to 1999 to examine when and at what rate infection and colonization of roots of apple trees by P. omnivora actually occurs. In three-year-old trees growing in orchard soils in 45-gallon containers (171,457 cm3) and inoculated with sclerotia in August 1997, infection occurred in the nursery after 12 weeks. For trees inoculated with sclerotia in February 1998, infection occurred within 15 weeks. After 18 weeks, 100% of trees were infected after inoculation in August and 80% of trees were infected after the February inoculation. This information is vital to understanding the epidemiology of Phymatotrichum root rot in apple orchards.

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P. Allan-Wojtas, K.A. Sanford, K.B. McRae and S. Carbyn

The apple industry worldwide would benefit from an improved and standardized description of fresh-apple textural quality. The description proposed here is unique in that it integrates structural, sensory, and consumer information. To demonstrate its benefits, 24 apple cultivars [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh..) Mansf.] were sampled over two harvest seasons and analyzed using microstructural and sensory techniques. Cultivars were selected to cover a range of known sensory textures, and microstructural profiles were compiled in parallel with sensory and instrumental studies. Each cultivar was pre pared for conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation using standard methods. Representative fruit from each cultivar were photographed at three magnifications to visualize fruit architecture, tissue relationships, and size, shape, and arrangement of cells within layers to compile the microstructural profile. A trained sensory panel evaluated the cultivars for crispness, surface coarseness, sponginess, hardness, juiciness, degree of melting, mealiness, and skin toughness while a consumer panel rated liking. This information was compiled into a texture profile. The microstructural and texture profiles were then combined into a cultivar profile for each sample. Cultivar profiles were collected to form a database; subtle similarities and differences among the 28 market-quality samples were interpreted and noted. With this technique, those structures with similar sensory properties can be identified with some form of microscopy. Clarifying and predicting the parameters that are related to textural quality in new cultivars will streamline the introduction process.

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Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, Tomoyuki Kon, Tsuyoshi Kudo and Miguel Pedro Guerra

Apples ( Malus × sylvestris var. domestica ) are an important source of polyphenols (phenolic compounds) in the human diet ( Hertog et al., 1992 ) and a classic example of fruit susceptibility to enzymatic browning, which is a major problem for

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Kevin R. Kosola, Beth Ann A. Workmaster, James S. Busse and Jeffrey H. Gilman

roots from apple trees [ Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] at the University of Wisconsin Peninsular Agricultural Experiment Station near Sturgeon Bay (lat. 44°52′51.96″ N, long. 87°20′7.8″ E) on 13 May 2004. The soil type was an Emmet

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Bradley J. Rickard, David R. Rudell and Christopher B. Watkins

costs if fewer materials are needed in storage. Here, we focus specifically on firm flesh browning of the ‘Empire’ apple ( Malus sylvestris var. domestica Borkh.), which is a major cause of revenue loss for growers and storage operators in New York

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Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock and Christopher B. Watkins

et al., 2000 , 2002 ; Kweon et al., 2012 , 2013 ). Materials and Methods Fruit source, treatments, and shelf life and storage conditions. ‘Fuji’ apple [ Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit used for this experiment

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Gerry Henry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen and Linda Herbert

concentration and timing on performance of five different apple cultivars. Materials and Methods In Apr. 1998, five apple [ Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var domestica (Borkh.) Mansf] cultivars (Ambrosia, Cameo, Fuji, Gala, and Silken) on the dwarfing

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Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Peter Toivonen and Linda Herbert

and tree P status and apple yield and quality response was emphasized. Materials and Methods In Apr. 1998, an experimental block of five apple [ Malus sylvestris (L) Mill var domestica (Borkh.) Mansf] cultivars (Ambrosia, Cameo, Fuji, Gala, and

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis and David R. Rudell

‘Royal Gala’ [ Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] is one of the major apple cultivars produced worldwide. In North America, production is projected to continue to increase ( U.S. Apple Association, 2010 ). The unique

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Jean-Pierre Privé, Lindsay Russell and Anita LeBlanc

physiological (drought) stress ( Glenn et al., 2001 ). From ‘Ginger Gold’ [ Malus × sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] leaf gas exchange measurements made in the 2004 season as part of a preliminary study, it appeared that greater rates of