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Ninghang Wang, Chao Zhang, Sainan Bian, Pengjie Chang, Lingjuan Xuan, Lijie Fan, Qin Yu, Zhigao Liu, Cuihua Gu, Shouzhou Zhang, Yaling Wang, and Yamei Shen

Magnolia is an original genus belonging to Magnoliaceae and has a long history of cultivation in China given its beauty and fragrance. Therefore, Magnolia has been widely used in garden landscapes for its high ornamental value. Flower color is

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Chandra S. Thammina, Christopher von Kohn, and Margaret R. Pooler

Magnolia L. (Magnoliaceae) is a popular genus comprising more than 130 species distributed predominantly in temperate and tropical regions in Southeast Asia ( Azuma et al., 1999 ; Figlar and Nooteboom, 2004 ; Kim et al., 2001 ). They are valued

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Donna C. Fare

Deciduous magnolias are well adapted to many landscape situations and are highly desirable due to their floriferous nature. About 800,000 flowering magnolias are sold each year in the United States and about 10% of the nurseries that grow magnolias

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Fulya Baysal-Gurel, Ravi Bika, Christina Jennings, Cristi Palmer, and Terri Simmons

Magnolias ( Magnolia sp.) are in the family Magnoliaceae, and belong to a genus that consists of ≈240 different species of large shrubs and trees native to Central America, South America, eastern North America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia

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James Ferguson, Bala Rathinasabapathi, and Clinton Warren

containerized plant production ( Weston, 2005 ). However, wood chips and leaf mulches from several woody perennials, including southern redcedar and southern magnolia, may contain water-soluble natural products with phytotoxic activities and they could therefore

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J. Kevin Parris, Thomas G. Ranney, Halina T. Knap, and W. Vance Baird

, 2006 ; Soltis et al., 2004 ). In some cases, the artificial induction of polyploidy in Magnolia also can enhance ornamental characteristics, including thicker leaves and larger flowers with thicker petals that persist longer ( Kehr, 1985 ). As such

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Peter J. Zale, Daniel K. Struve, Pablo Jourdan, and David M. Francis

Magnolia virginiana var. virginiana (sweetbay magnolia) is a native component of the flora of the eastern U.S. coastal plain and mid-Atlantic states and is used as an ornamental plant in commercial and residential landscapes. The species is

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S.A. Merkle and A.T. Wiecko

Cultures were initiated from immature seeds of three species of magnolia: sweetbay magnolia (Magnolia virginiana L.), fraser magnolia (M. fraseri Walt.) and yellow cucumbertree [M. acuminata var. cordata (Michx.) Sarg.]. Immature seeds were bisected longitudinally and cultured on a solidified conditioning medium containing 2 mg 2,4-D/liter, 0.25 mg BA/liter, 40 g sucrose/liter, and 1 g casein hydrolysate/liter. Cultures were maintained in the dark at 22C and transferred to fresh medium at monthly intervals. Within 2 months of culture, somatic embryos or proembryogenic masses proliferated from one end of the endosperm mass. Somatic embryos and proembryogenic masses of each species were cultured on a hormone-free version of the conditioning medium to complete maturation and then transferred to the same hormone-free medium, minus casein hydrolysate, to initiate germination. Germinants were transferred to a hormone-free plantlet development medium for conversion. Plantlets of all three species survived transfer to soil mix and continued to grow. Chemical names used: (2,4 -dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D), N- (phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA).

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J. Kevin Parris, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney, and Jeffrey Adelberg

The genus Magnolia L. consists of over 250 species ( Figlar and Nooteboom, 2004 ) and numerous hybrids and cultivars that can be cultivated in temperate and tropical climates worldwide. The diverse ornamental traits make the genus appealing for

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S.A. Merkle and B.A. Watson-Pauley

Bigleaf magnolia (Magnolia macrophylla Michx.) cultures were initiated from immature seeds on an induction medium containing 9.0 μm 2,4-D, 1.1μm BA, and 1 g casein hydrolysate/liter. After 2 months on induction medium, one culture produced adventive embryos. Clumps of embryos transferred to liquid induction medium proliferated as nodules, which grew in diameter, but failed to produce embryos while maintained in induction medium. Nodules transferred to basal medium produced clumps of somatic embryos, which continued to produce repetitive embryos with monthly transfer to fresh basal medium. Individual embryos transferred to basal medium lacking casein hydrolysate germinated and leaves expanded. Plantlets derived from these embryos were transferred to potting mix and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Chemical names used: (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D); N -(phenylmethyl)-lH-purin-6-amine (BA).