The objective of this study was to develop models to predict the occurrence of the flowering peak of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia). At Hilo and Kona, weather and `Ikaika' flowering data were collected. The best model that described the time from the starting date of the flowering season to the highest flowering peak was days = 249.15 + 0.12 (total growing degree days) - 5.81 (maximum temperature) - 6.26 (minimum temperature). The model predicted the highest peak 4 days before it occurred at Hilo and 4 days after it occurred at Kona. Two statistical models, one for each location, were developed to predict the time from the starting date of the flowering season to the first peak. At Hilo, the best model was days = 118.61 - 0.11 (total growing degree days) + 0.000168 (total solar radiation). The model predicted the first peak 1 day before it occurred in the field. The best model at Kona was days = (-156.34) + 12.67 (minimum temperature) + 0.01 (total growing degree days). The model predicted the first peak on the day it occurred in the field. These models may aid growers in predicting the flowering peak so that bees can be brought into orchards at the proper time to increase cross-pollination.
Sam-Gwang Hwang, Kent D. Kobayashi, and Mike A. Nagao
L.A. Wasilwa, N. Ondabu, G.W. Watani, H. Mulli, S. Kiiru, A. Nyagah, and Kagiri
Several outstanding macadamia trees (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche, M. tetraphylla L. S. or hybrid of these two species) were selected from orchards established in the 1960s in the central and eastern highlands and evaluated over a period of 10 years. In the thrid year of these evaluations, clones from 30 high-yielding trees (40 to 90 kg) were propagated by grafting and trials were established in the central and eastern highlands. Three to five Hawaiian varieties were included as controls. Each trial consisted of five to 10 trees of each clone. Trees were evaluated for vigor, flowering, age of bearing, and yield. From these tests, a subset of 10 of the most outstanding clones were selected and evaluated in 25 field trials located in the Kenyan highlands. Most these clones started to bear 3 years after transplanting. Three distinct flowering patterns have been observed. Ten years after transplanting, yields ranged between 30 to 60 kg nuts/tree. The macadamia hybrids and M. tetraphylla performed best at the higher elevations (1700–1850 m), M. integrifolia clones performed best at elevations of 1500 to 1750 m. Only two Hawaiian varieties performed well and have been used in the breeding program. Most of the cultivated macadamia trees in Kenya are either M. integrifolia or hybrids. Cultivation of M. tetraphylla in Kenya is no longer recommended.
Proteaceae ( Hardner et al., 2009 ; Nagao, 2008 ), has two species that produce edible nuts: Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla. Both have dark green holly-like leaves and can reach a height of 40 ft or more. Macadamia integrifolia , known
Lisa McFadyen, David Robertson, Margaret Sedgley, Paul Kristiansen, and Trevor Olesen
.B. Yoshimoto, J.M. Yoshimura, E.R. Notley, E. Fuchigami, L.H. 1994 Relationship between vegetative flushing and flowering of Macadamia integrifolia in Hawaii Sci. Hort. 42 47 54 O’Hare, P. Quinlan, K. Stephenson, R. Vock, N. 2004 Growing guide: Macadamia
Lisa McFadyen, David Robertson, Stephen Morris, and Trevor Olesen
vegetative growth, flowering and yield of macadamia ( Macadamia integrifolia , M. integrifolia × M. tetraphylla ) in a canopy management context. PhD Diss., Univ. New England, Armidale, Australia Wilkie, J.D. Sedgley, M. Morris, S. Muldoon, S. Olesen, T
Russell Galanti, Alyssa Cho, Amjad Ahmad, and Theodore Radovich
Macadamia ( Macadamia integrifolia , Maiden & Betche) nut production is estimated to be a 22.2 million kilogram, $53.2 million industry in Hawaii ( USDA, 2018 ), and the largest macadamia production occurs in the United States. Current management
Marcel M.C. Tsang and Jack K. Fujii
An electronic moisture meter (Dole Model 400) was calibrated for rapid determination of moisture content of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche) nuts. The meter was found suitable to measure the moisture content (from 9.5% to 21.5% on a wet-weight basis) of macadamia nuts with sufficient accuracy for routine use by farmers and processors. On average, the meter readings were about 0.21% ± 0.08% se lower compared to readings obtained from the standard forced-air oven technique. A moisture analysis with the meter required <5 minutes compared to 72 hours by conventional oven-drying.
Craig M. Hardner, Marisa Wall, and Alyssa Cho
Genome and transcriptome sequencing characterises the gene space of Macadamia integrifolia (Proteaceae) BMC Genomics 17 937 O’Connor, K. Hayes, B. Hardner, C. Alam, M. Topp, B. 2019 Selecting for nut characteristics in macadamia using a genome wide
Tim J. O’Hare, Hung Hong Trieu, Bruce Topp, Dougal Russell, Sharon Pun, Caterina Torrisi, and Dianna Liu
Macadamia nut kernels ( Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla ) are very high in oil, accounting for about three-quarters of their weight ( Saleeb et al., 1973 ). The oil itself consists of ≈77% to 80% monounsaturated fat, 1% to 7% polyunsaturated
Russell Galanti, Alyssa Cho, Amjad Ahmad, and Javier Mollinedo
concentrations associated with deficiencies of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous in macadamia. Hawai‘i Agr. Expt. Sta., Univ. Hawai‘i Program Notes No. 88 Fletcher, A. Rennenberg, H. Schmidt, S. 2009 Nitrogen partitioning in orchard grown Macadamia