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Cathy Sabota

White and red oak (Quercus spp.), Black Cherry [Prunus serotina (Ehrh.)], Sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees], and Eastern Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis (L.)] logs were inoculated, in 12-mm holes drilled 25 mm deep, with eight strains of shiitake mushrooms [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler]. Logs were then placed in 80% shade houses under natural environment. Harvested mushrooms were counted and weighed and biological efficiency computed. Interactions among strains and seasons of harvest and species and seasons of harvest were significant. The higher producing strains and species produced more mushrooms later in the life of the log than the least productive strains and wood species. White and red oaks produced significantly more than the other wood species. There was only one strain, CW25, that produced significantly less than the top four yielding strains.

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Gregory E. Frey, Tarik Durmus, Erin O. Sills, Fikret Isik, and Marcus M. Comer

cultivation in the northeastern United States. Univ. Vermont Ext., Burlington Sabota, C. 1996 Strain of shiitake mushroom [ Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] and wood species affect the yield of shiitake mushrooms HortTechnology 6 388 393 doi: 10

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Cathy Sabota

Logs of white and red oak (Quercus spp.), black cherry [Prunus serotina (Ehrh.)], sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees), and eastern sycamore [Platanus occidentalis (L.)] were inoculated with eight strains of shiitake mushroom in 12-mm holes drilled 25 mm deep and spaced 15 cm apart down the log and 5 cm apart around the log in a staggered pattern. Logs then were placed in quonset houses covered with 80% shadecloth in Mar. 1991. The environment within these shaded houses was not modified otherwise. Harvested mushrooms were counted and weighed and biological efficiency (BE) was determined. White and red oaks produced significantly higher yields of shiitake mushrooms over the lifetime of the log than the other types of wood. Only one strain, CW25, produced significantly lower yields than the best four strains. Interactions among strains and seasons of harvest and the species and seasons of harvest were significant. The most productive mushroom strains and tree species yielded more mushrooms later in the life of the logs than the least productive strains and tree species did earlier in the life of the logs. BE attained from strain × species interactions ranged from 0% (WW70, CW25, and WR85 on sycamore) to 8.8% (WW44 on red oak) in an outdoor noncontrolled environment. The gross per cord value (at wholesale price) of shiitake harvested from white oak was $2475.00. The cost of producing one cord of shiitake is about $6.44 per log in a small-scale operation. A net return of $1509.00 per cord is realistic and includes the cost of labor.

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J.J. Worrall and C.S. Yang

A mixture of apple pomace and sawdust was tested as a substrate for production of shiitake [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] and oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer and P. sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing.] on synthetic logs. MyCelia grew faster and more densely in logs containing apple pomace than in sawdust alone. Five shiitake isolates and two Pleurotus spp. produced higher fresh weights on a mixture of equal parts (by weight) of apple pomace and sawdust than on either substrate alone. An alternative substrate based on sawdust, millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), bran gave almost identical overall yield as pomace-sawdust medium, but there was a significant differential effect of the substrates on yield of the two tested shiitake isolates. Analyses and experiments in vitro suggested that optimal N levels provided by apple pomace account in part for its effectiveness.

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Cathy M. Sabota and Caula A. Beyl

To determine if biological efficiency of shiitake mushrooms was affected by the density of spawn inoculation, white oak logs about 31 inches (0.79 m) long were cut from trees harvested 14 Apr. and inoculated 6 May 2003 with strain WR46 of Lentinula edodes using four rates of inoculation. The number of holes drilled and inoculated with spawn was determined by multiplying the weight of each log by 0.5, 1, 2, or 3. A 15-pound log (6.8 kg) inoculated at “3” times the weight would have 45 holes drilled and inoculated. Each rate of inoculation treatment was replicated three times with three subsamples per replication. After six harvests over a 21-month period, the biological efficiency (BE) of the logs increased by 1.94% per additional hole per pound (0.45 kg). This increase in BE would result in $1.15 in additional returns per log with a cost of only $0.15 more per log due to increased spawn use, resulting in a net profit, excluding increased labor and wax costs, of $1.00 per log.

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R.P. Pacumbaba and R.O. Pacumbaba Jr.

Seven strains of shiitake mushroom [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] produced spawn in culture vessels containing hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS (yeast extract, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar) broth within 35 to 45 days after mycelia inoculations. Under greenhouse conditions, shiitake basidiocarps (mushroom fruit) appeared from 1 to 3 months after spawn inoculations of the hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS broth. The shiitake mushroom strains LE2, LE1, LE6, and LE5 had 10.4, 7.3, 2.5, and 1.6 times more fresh harvested basidiocarps, respectively, on the amended hardwood sawdust compared to the controls. The amount of basidiocarps produced by the shiitake strains LE3, LE4, and LE7 was the same on both hardwood sawdust treatments. The basidiocarps of LE1, LE2, LE3, LE4, and LE5 were averaged 5 inches (12.7 cm) in diameter, however, the basidiocarps of LE6 and LE7 were averaging only 2 inches (5.1 cm) in diameter. The only pests of the shiitake basidiocarps in the greenhouse were slugs, but they were easily controlled by applying table salt. The start up cost of inoculating 100 shiitake spawn blocks on hardwood sawdust on one bench in the greenhouse was $77. The start up cost of inoculating shiitake spawn on 100 logs was $1,329.75. In 1 year, shiitake strains LE1, LE2, LE5, and LE6 produced 19.5, 20.2, 7.9, and 4.5 lb (8.8, 9.2, 3.6, and 2.0 kg), respectively, of harvested fresh basidiocarps on amended hardwood sawdust in the greenhouse. The mushrooms retail for $3.20 to $4.20/lb ($7.05 to $9.26/kg). The use of the hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS broth for shiitake production in the greenhouse has considerable economic potential for shiitake mushroom growers.

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Néstor Curvetto, Débora Figlas, and Silvia Delmastro

Nutritive agar formulations with additions of poplar (Populus alba) sawdust, wheat (Triticum durum) bran, or milled sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed hulls (SSH) were evaluated for mycelium cultivation of shiitake (Lentinula edodes), in petri dishes. Sawdust, 2, 3 and 4 g·L-1 (0.27, 0.40 and 0.53 oz/gal) added to MYA (malt, yeast extract and agar) medium did not improve the mycelium growth rate, while media that included 1, 2, and 3 g·L-1 (0.13, 0.27, and 0.40 oz/gal) wheat bran or 2, 3, and 4 g·L-1 (0.27, 0.40, and 0.53 oz/gal) milled SSH exhibited a significant increase in the mycelium growth rate, at 25 °C (77 °F). The use of SSH obtained directly from the oil industry was evaluated as a substrate for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom via synthetic logs in plastic bags. A linear growth test was used to previously assay the mycelium growth rate in substrate compositions with different contents of SSH, wheat bran, and poplar sawdust, at 25 °C. The largest mycelial growth rates were 2.75, 2.88, and 2.93 mm·d-1 (0.108, 0.113, and 0.115 inch/day) for the substrates formulated with 8 SSH: 2 wheat bran, 9 SSH: 1 poplar sawdust, and 8 SSH: 1 wheat bran: 1 poplar sawdust by weight, respectively. The synthetic logs showed a daily production rate of 2 kg shiitake/100 kg dry substrate for a 55 days cycle production with a simple formula containing 37.5% SSH, 0.5% calcium carbonate (CaCO3), 2% calcium sulfate (CaSO4), and 60% water. Addition of wheat bran to the SSH-based synthetic log produced no significant differences on biological efficiency, mushroom production, or productivity.

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Hiroyo Mihira, Cathy Sabota, and Ann Warren

Shiitake mushrooms [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] have several therapeutic effects such as antibiotic, immunoregulatory, hypocholesterolemic, and hypotensive. Human studies have proven that serum cholesterol can be lowered by consuming shiitake mushrooms on a regular basis. However, few studies have evaluated shiitake mushroom effects for more than a few weeks. In this study, male spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into six groups. Each group received one of the following diets: 0% cholesterol (C); C + 5% shiitake mushrooms; C + 5% Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach; 1% cholesterol (1C); 1C + 5% shiitake; 1C + 5% A. bisporus. Serum cholesterol was measured at the end of 9 weeks and systolic blood pressure was measured weekly for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, total serum (TC) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol (mg·dL–1) were significantly lower in both of the shiitake diets compared to 1C or 1C + 5% A. bisporus. The total cholesterol for diets 1 through 6 were 44, 34, 36, 71, 34, and 54 mg·dL–1, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower over the 6-week period for the shiitake and A. bisporus amended diets. The addition of cholesterol to the diets did not significantly affect systolic blood pressure. Results of this study indicate that both shiitake and A. bisporus mushrooms may help reduce hypertension. Shiitake mushrooms may be superior to white mushrooms for hypocholesterolemic effect when cholesterol in the diet is high. The results of this study reinforce other work conducted in Japan on animals and humans. Promotion of shiitake mushrooms as a product that can reduce cholesterol or blood pressure can increase sales if scientific information supports these claims.

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R.P. Pacumbaba and R.O. Pacumbaba Jr.

Culture media YMMBSA (yeast extract, malt extract, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar, agar), YVMBSA (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar, agar), and YVMSA (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, sucrose, agar) and broths YVMBS (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar), YVMS (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, sucrose), and MVBS (multigrain oatmeal V-8 vegetable juice brown sugar) were formulated and demonstrated to be excellent media and broths for growing shiitake mushrooms [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] in the laboratory. When a portion of the unopened basidiocarp or mushroom fruit (cap or stipe) was isolated on PSA (potato sucrose agar) medium and transferred to the formulated culture media, the mycelia significantly ramified to flocculent (wooly or fluffy) growth texture within 20 days. For the first time, shiitake mushroom basidiocarps have been induced on the formulated plated media within 20 to 35 days. In tissue culture vessels, mycelia grew well on substrates composed of maple, oak, maple + oak, maple + vermiculite, and oak + vermiculite which had been amended with the broths YVMBS, YVMS or MVBS, attaining spawn texture in 25 to 30 days. Shiitake basidiocarps appeared on the tissue vessels, Magenta GA-7, in 2.6 to 4.1 months. Shiitake mushroom strains, LE1, LE2, LE6, LE7, and LE8, attained flocculent mycelia on the formulated culture media YMMBSA, YVMBSA, and YVMSA in 20 days. Growing the same shiitake strains in the bigger tissue culture vessels, P4928, containing hardwood sawdust amended with broth YVMBS or YVMS or MVBS resulted in significantly larger volume of mycelia growth and spawn texture was attained in 35 to 45 days. Shiitake basidiocarp initials or pins were induced on the spawn blocks in 3 to 5 days after the blocks were squeezed off from the sides of the tissue culture vessels. These results are the first that the formulated culture media considerably enhanced the growing of shiitake mushroom mycelia, production of spawn, and basidiocarps in less time (2.6 to 4.1 months after inoculation) in the laboratory. Basidiocarp productions of shiitake mushroom on amended hardwood sawdust may have an excellent economic potential commercially. It takes 1 to 2 years for basidiocarps to appear in shiitake spawn inoculated logs.

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Cathy Sabota, Caula Beyl, and Gokul Ghale

This study evaluated whether adding either sucrose or urea to the soak water could enhance production of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) on sawdust blocks. For both sucrose and urea experiments, sawdust blocks inoculated with “QR” and “26” strains of L. edodes were placed in the soak water amended with either sucrose or urea at the first soaking only, at the second soaking only, or at all six soakings. Control blocks were soaked in tap water. In Experiment I, blocks were soaked in water containing 0, 20,000, or 40,000 ppm (mg·L–1) sucrose. Strain 26 produced significantly more mushrooms and greater mushroom weight than QR. Addition of sucrose to the soak water resulted in fewer mushrooms harvested and lower yields than controls. There was a significant interaction between the sucrose rate and strain for both mushroom number and biological efficiency (BE). Both strains produced fewer mushrooms and less BE as the concentration of sucrose in the soak water increased; however, QR was less affected by the increasing concentration of sucrose. In Experiment II, sawdust blocks inoculated with QR and 26 strains of shiitake were soaked in water containing 0, 2400, or 3600 ppm (mg·L–1) urea. Strain 26 produced significantly more mushrooms and greater BE than QR. The addition of 2400 ppm of urea to the soak water resulted in more mushrooms per block harvested and a 12% increase in BE over the control. The 2400 ppm rate added at each soak produced more mushrooms and mushroom weight than the control and also produced more mushrooms than any of the blocks in the higher rate of urea (3600 ppm) treatments. Adding 16.9 oz (480 g) of urea per tank to obtain 2400 ppm urea in the soak water results in the minimal increase in cost of about $0.20 per soak (52 sawdust blocks), but potentially increases the value of the mushrooms harvested from each block by $0.75. In an average-sized shiitake mushroom block production facility containing 500 blocks, continuous addition of 2400 ppm urea to the soak water would provide an increased return of about $375 over the entire season.