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Tara Baugher, Montserrat Fonseca Estrada, Kelly Lowery, and Héctor Núñez Contreras

The 2012 Census of Agriculture [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2014 ] indicates that Hispanic/Latino farm owners represent a promising next generation of specialty crop growers. While principal operators of all farms decreased by 4% between

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Elsa Sánchez, Maria Gorgo-Gourovitch, and Lee Stivers

statements “please rate your ability to assist Hispanic/Latino farmers” and “please rate your ability to assist Hispanic/Latino farmworkers” before and after the first and third training workshops and 1 year after the third workshop. One year after the

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Emilie A.K. Justen, Cynthia Haynes, Ann Marie VanDerZanden, and Nancy Grudens-Schuck

and other industries who have arrived in the state from Latin America ( Norman, 2008 ). Seasonal positions that begin in March or April and end before December are common in the horticultural industry, and it is common for Latinos to hold these jobs

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Ramu Govindasamy, Venkata S. Puduri, and James E. Simon

alter or add to their selection of crops to effectively respond to new trends and changes in demand ( Govindasamy et al., 2007a ). According to 2001 Census Bureau report, Hispanics (to whom we refer as Latinos) and Asians continue to be the two fastest

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Francis X. Mangan, Claire Kozower, and William Bramlage

Latinos are 6% of the population of Massachusetts and are the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority in this state. Due to the increase in Latinos and other ethnic groups, farmers in Massachusetts are diversifying their crops to meet the demands of these new markets. Cilantro is a popular herb in Latino cuisine; however, many farmers in Massachusetts are not familiar with production and postharvest practices for this plant. A factorial experiment was initiated on a commercial farm in eastern Massachusetts to ascertain more information about short-term postharvest treatments. This experiment was performed on three dates in the fall of 1999, which served as replications. There were three main effects: cilantro harvested the same day and stored in the sun, cilantro harvested the same day and stored in the shade, and cilantro harvested on previous day and stored in the shade. For each main effect there were six sub-effects for cilantro storage: roots intact, roots removed, roots intact and plants in sealed plastic bag, roots removed and plants in sealed plastic bag, roots intact and plants in water, roots removed and plants in water. Cilantro bunches were given a visual quality number every hour from 10:30 am to 4:30 pm on each date. No difference in visual quality was observed between cilantro with roots intact compared to cilantro with roots removed. Cilantro stored in the direct sun had a lower visual quality index than cilantro stored in the shade. Cilantro stored in water or in a sealed plastic bag and kept in the shade showed little decrease in visual quality after 7 hours on the day of harvest. The results of these experiments will help farmers in Massachusetts to produce and market cilantro to meet the growing demands for this product.

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A. Carter and M. Rulevich

The population of Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in Massachusetts is ≈6% of the total state population. Latinos have begun to request certain commodities native to their culture at Farmers' Markets and retail stores. One of these commodities is a winter squash [Cucurbita moschata (Duchene Poir)] called calabaza in Puerto Rico and auyama in the Dominican Republic. Calabaza has also been found in Asian markets. In order to have the crop ready for market by August in the Northeast, cultural practices which hasten maturity would need to be used. Eight treatments were tested: 1) direct seeded in bare ground, 2) direct seeded in black plastic, 3) direct seeded in bare ground with rowcover, 4) direct seeded in black plastic with rowcover, 5) transplanted in bare ground, 6) transplanted in black plastic, 7) transplanted in bare ground with rowcover, 8) transplanted in black plastic with rowcover. Calabaza was compared to butternut squash. Three weeks after seeding or transplanting, the transplants on black plastic were just beginning to vine and those transplants on black plastic and covered with rowcover were vining and in flower. Direct-seeded plants were in the second- or third-leaf stage. Treatment effects on early growth in the spring translated to differences in earliness and yield at the end of the season. Overall, the use of transplants improved yield by 30%, black plastic improved yield 15%, and the use of rowcover improved yields by 12%. There were no significant differences among the treatments where transplants were used along with plastic, rowcover or both. Significant differences were found in the number of fruit available for harvest in August. Direct-seeded plants on bare ground or on plastic did not have any harvestable fruit in August. The transplant, plastic and rowcover treatment had 300 to 500 boxes/acre depending on the year. Even the use of transplants on bare ground yielded an August-harvested crop.

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grafting ‘Chambourcin’ to rootstocks in this setting were not immediately evident, differences in vine morphology and fruit yields were noted. Learning Preferences of Latino Specialty Crop Growers University extension horticulturists have an opportunity to

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Juan C. Díaz-Pérez, Sharad C. Phatak, David Giddings, Denne Bertrand, and Harry A. Mills

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Hornem) is a popular crop in Mexico and other Latin American countries. There is an increasing demand for this vegetable in the United States, particularly from the growing Latino population. However, there is limited information about tomatillo production. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of plastic mulches on plant growth, yield, and root zone temperature in two cultivars of tomatillo. The study was conducted in Spring and Summer 2000. The design was a randomized complete block with a split plot arrangement, where plastic film mulch (black, gray, and silver mulches, and bare soil) was the main plot and cultivar (`Toma Verde' and `Verde Puebla]) the subplot. In the spring, mulch treatments had little effect on plant growth during the first 30 days after transplanting and there were no significant differences in fruit yields. In the summer planting, both early growth and fruit yields were greatest with the silver and gray mulch treatments and lowest on bare soil. Plant growth during the establishment was related with subsequent plant growth and yield. In mature plants, vegetative top fresh weight and total fruit yield were higher (P < 0.01) in the spring than in the summer. Total fruit yield (both seasons), marketable yield (spring) and cull yield (spring) were lower in `Toma Verde' than in `Verde Puebla'. Root zone temperatures (RZTs) in the spring (mean = 26.4 °C) were lower than in the summer (mean = 29.3 °C). In both seasons, mean RZT was highest under black mulch and lowest in bare soil. In the summer, plant growth and fruit yields tended to decrease with increasing RZTs. Tomatillo plants grown on mulches with a mean seasonal RZT of 30 °C had fruit yields that were 65% (`Toma Verde') or 50% (`Verde Puebla') lower respectively than those of plants on mulches with a RZT of 27 °C. There were no significant differences in foliar concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, B, Zn, Cu and Na among mulches. Foliar concentrations of the majority of mineral nutrients were not related with the mean RZT for the season.

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Laura A. Levin, Kelly M. Langer, David G. Clark, Thomas A. Colquhoun, Jeri L. Callaway, and Howard R. Moskowitz

then further separated by ethnicity into four subgroups within the original groups FH and PG&Y: white, black, Latino, and Asian ( Supplementary Table S3 ). Again, the element with the concept of no floral fragrance was found in the bottom two elements

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farmworkers, Sánchez et al. (p. 476) created a training series for agricultural educators. The training included an expert on the science of inclusion, a specialist in Latino community studies, and representatives from organizations actively connecting with