determination of winter-hardiness under natural conditions. The use of freeze chambers can help determine winter-hardiness in a more timely fashion. The objectives of this research were to determine the LT 50 of zoysiagrass cultivars that were naturally cold
Jason D. Hinton, David P. Livingston III, Grady L. Miller, Charles H. Peacock and Tan Tuong
Mahmoud Panjtandoust and David J. Wolyn
concentration in the rhizome ( Landry and Wolyn, 2011 ). For a seedling experiment in controlled environments, where cold acclimation induced early senescence of GM as observed in the field, this cultivar had lower LT 50 values (increased freezing tolerance
Renae E. Moran, Youping Sun, Fang Geng, Donglin Zhang and Gennaro Fazio
length differences between rootstocks. Tree mortality was considered as relative shoot dry weight of 20% or less. Tree mortality data were analyzed using the PROC PROBIT procedure and inverse confidence limits to estimate the LT 50 . Results Expt. 1
Mark K. Ehlenfeldt and Bryan T. Vinyard
determined for each bud. In total, data from 90 dissected buds were collected for use in each LT 50 determination for subsequent statistical analyses. Controls were similarly handled shoots that were kept at 4 °C with no exposure to the glycol freezing bath
Danqing Li, Jiao Zhang, Jiaping Zhang, Kang Li and Yiping Xia
. Moreover, the relationship between green period, calculated using predicted sigmoid curves, and foliar cold tolerance, measured using LT 50 , was studied to provide a theoretical basis for molecular marker-assisted breeding of new cultivars that combine the
Olivia M. Lenahan, William R. Graves and Rajeev Arora
the R-program ( R Development Core Team, 2009 ). A sigmoidal curve was fit to injury scores versus temperature for each of the 3000 sets of bootstrapped data and interpolated at 50% injury to give LT 50 temperatures ( Ehlenfeldt et al., 2006 ). Stem
Jun Liu, Orville M. Lindstrom and Dario J. Chavez
indication for low-temperature damage. From the rate of injury, the freezing temperature that causes damage to 50% of the sample is known as lethal temperature 50 (LT 50 ) ( Bigras and Colombo, 2013 ; Levitt, 1980 ; Stergios and Howell, 1973 ). Peach floral
Diego Barranco, Natividad Ruiz and María Gómez-del Campo
This study aims to determine the relationship between laboratory frost-resistance data for the leaves of eight olive cultivars and observed field resistance in the same genotypes undergoing natural frost damage. The lethal freezing temperature (LT50) for each cultivar was established by measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) of the medium into which solutes from damaged leaf tissue were leaked. The value obtained was then correlated with percentage frost shoot for the same eight cultivars damaged by natural frosts in a field test. A negative correlation was observed between the percentage frost shoot and leaf LT50 for all the cultivars under study. The most frost-hardy cultivars (`Cornicabra', `Arbequina', and `Picual') were those presenting the lowest percentage frost shoot and lowest LT50. Conversely, the most frost-susceptible cultivar (`Empeltre') displayed 100% frost shoot, together with one of the highest LT50 values (–9.5 °C). According to these results, lethal freezing temperature (LT50) calculated from leaf ion leakage at a range of freezing temperatures, seem to be a valid parameter for evaluating frost tolerance in olive cultivars.
Canes of three field-grown cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. `Maurin Makea', `Ottawa', and `Muskoka') were sampled from October to April. Carbohydrate contents of canes and flower buds were analyzed, and cold hardiness (LT50) was determined by controlled freezing. Starch, sucrose, glucose, fructose, and minor amounts of raffinose and stachyose were present in both cane and bud tissues. Glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars in buds. In canes, the proportion of sucrose of all sugars was greater than in buds. Seasonal changes in carbohydrates were related to changes in cold hardiness and mean air temperature during a 5-day period preceding sampling. Starch decreased during fall and was barely detectable in midwinter. Soluble carbohydrates accumulated to 73 to 89 mg·g-1 dry weight in canes and 113 to 131 mg·g-1 dry weight in buds in midwinter. The most striking increase occurred in the concentration of sucrose, but glucose, fructose, raffinose, and stachyose also accumulated. There was a positive correlation between LT50 and the amount of starch, but a negative correlation between LT50 and the amounts of total soluble carbohydrates, sucrose, glucose, and fructose. High levels of sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates, and a high ratio of sucrose to glucose plus fructose were characteristic of a hardy cultivar. Results are evidence of the importance of carbohydrate reserves, especially sucrose, on winter survival of red raspberry.
S. Ball, Y.L. Qian and C. Stushnoff
No information is available regarding endogenous soluble carbohydrate accumulation in buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] during cold acclimation. The objective of this study was to determine composition of soluble carbohydrates and their relationship to freezing tolerance in two buffalograss cultivars, 609 and NE 91-118, with different freezing tolerances. The experiment was conducted under natural cold acclimation conditions in two consecutive years in Fort Collins, Colo. Based upon average LT50 (subfreezing temperature resulting in 50% mortality) from seven sampling intervals in 1998-99 and six sampling intervals in 1999-2000, `NE 91-118' survived 4.5 °C and 4.9 °C colder temperatures than `609', during the 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 winter seasons, respectively. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose were found in both cultivars in both years, and were generally higher in acclimated than pre- and post-acclimated stolons. Stachyose was not present in sufficient quantities for quantification. Cultivar NE 91-118 contained 63% to 77% more glucose and 41% to 51% more raffinose than `609' in the 1998-99 and 1999-2000 winter seasons, respectively. In 1999-2000, fructose content in `NE 91-118' was significantly higher than that of `609'. A significant negative correlation was found between LT50 vs. all carbohydrates in 1999-2000, and LT50 vs. sucrose and raffinose in 1998-99. Results suggest that soluble carbohydrates are important in freezing tolerance of buffalograss.