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Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane

Shoot and root growth were measured on Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `Torulosa', `Sylvestris', `Pfitzeriana', and `Hetzii') 1, 2, and 3 years after planting from 1l-liter black plastic containers. Mean diameter of the root system expanded quadratically, whereas mean branch spread increased linearly. Three years after planting, root spread was 2.75 times branch spread, and roots covered an area 5.5 times that covered by the branches. Percentage of total root length located within the dripline of the plants remained fairly constant for each cultivar during the 3 years following planting. Root length density increased over time but decreased with distance from the trunk. During the first 2 years after planting, shoot mass increased faster than root mass. In the 3rd year, the root system increased in mass at a faster rate than the shoots. Root length was correlated with root weight. Root spread and root area were correlated with trunk cross-sectional area, branch spread, and crown area.

Open access

R. W. Roncadori and F. A. Pokorny

Abstract

Total fresh weight and crown spread of Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii Henry plants, grown in microplots containing a low fertility medium of 4 soil:l sand:l milled pine bark and amended with 10N-4.4P-8.3K fertilizer at rates of 0, 110, or 220 μg/g, were significantly increased by inoculation with a spore mixture of 3 different vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi. Higher fertilizer concentrations improved crown spread but did not affect plant growth. Root colonization by the endophytes ranged from 24.4 to 39.2% and was unaffected by fertilization rates.

Open access

Norman E. Pellett and Donald B. White

Abstract

Maintenance of selected moisture and N levels in the soil throughout the fall did not significantly affect the rate of cold acclimation of container grown Juniperus chinensis cv. ‘Hetzi’ roots or tops. Two levels of soil N resulted in N of .79% ppm and 1.65% in the tops, and root N of .70% and 1.29% on December 2, 1963.

Plants receiving no N fertilization after September 2 decreased in total root N from 1.27% on September 11 to 0.70% on December 2. Tops decreased in total N from 1.62% to 0.84% during the same time period. Different soil moisture levels did not differentially affect the tissue moisture percentages, or cold acclimation.

Open access

Norman E. Pellett and Donald B. White

Abstract

Roots of container grown ‘Hetzi’ juniper developed cold hardiness to -10°C on December 2, 1963 in St. Paul, Minnesota as determined by controlled freezing tests. The temperature of container soil, under natural conditions, did not fall below 0° until after December 2. Once frozen, the soil temperature responded rapidly to falling ambient temperatures. Container soil temperatures of -10° occurred several times after December 2 resulting in root injury.

Tops developed cold hardiness from -15°C on September 11 to greater than -39° on December 2, 1963. No top injury occurred at any stage during the study. Winter injury common to container grown Hetzi Juniper in Minnesota is apparently root injury.

Open access

Norman E. Pellett and Donald B. White

Abstract

Changes in total sugars, reducing sugars, total N and protein N showed little relationship to changes in cold acclimation. Root and top moisture percentages decreased during the fall, the rates closely paralleling the increase in cold acclimation. It is postulated that a decrease in the cellular moisture, resulted in increased concentration of cellular solutes and closer spatial arrangement of water binding substances. Cold acclimation may have resulted from the higher bound water/free water ratio.

Open access

David J. Williams

Abstract

Two formulations, 5G and 75WP, of methazole (2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazolidine-3,5 dione) applied at 1.7, 3.4 and 6.8 kg ai/ha effectively controlled Digitaria sanguinalis L. (large crabgrass) and Portulaca oleracea L. (common purslane) in container-grown Cotoneaster apiculata Rehd. & Wils., Euonymus kiautschovicus Loes. cv. Manhattan and Juniperus chinensis L. cv. San Jose. All rates of the 75WP formulation reduced the shoot and root dry wt of Cotoneaster and Euonymus.

Open access

Peter R. Hicklenton

Abstract

Overwintering under microfoam thermoblanket resulted in high poststorage quality of container-grown Cotoneaster Dammeri C. K. Schneid, and Juniperus chinensis L. ‘Pfitzerana-Aureo’ in USDA plant hardiness zones 5a and 6a (1). Similar results were obtained for J. chinensis overwintered under white copolymer in zone 5, but severe damage was sustained by C. Dammeri since the covering did not maintain media temperature above the lethal point for this species. Storage under clear copolymer at both locations caused foliage damage which was severe in C. Dammeri and moderate in J. chinensis. Black poly storage caused severe foliage damage in all J. chinensis and C. Dammeri. Viburnum cassinoides L. overwintered without serious damage in all treatments.

Open access

Grace A. Chrustic and Robert D. Wright

Abstract

Rooted cuttings of Ilex crenata Thunb. ‘Helleri’, Rhododendron obtusum Planch. ‘Rosebud’, and Juniperus chinensis L. ‘San Jose’ were grown in a 100% pine-bark medium amended with dolomitic limestone at 0 to 8 kg m-3 with resulting pH from 3.4 to 7.2. Except for juniper at 2 kg m-3, growth was not increased by liming, and 8 kg m-3 tended to reduce shoot and root growth. This reduced growth was attributed in part to greater NH4 adsorption by the bark, reducing the amount available for plant uptake, and a higher nitrification rate, leading to an elevated NO3 to NH4 ratio in the medium. Liming pine bark to improve growth of these woody plants may be unnecessary.

Open access

C. E. Barnett, R. A. White, A. M. Petrovic, and G. L. Good

Abstract

Root lengths of an adventitious root system (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis palustris Huds.) and a woody plant fiberous root system (Hetz juniper, Juniperus chinensis L. ‘Hetzii’) were estimated using an automated method employing a video camera and an area/length meter to count scanning line and root intersections. A grid method of root length estimation was used for comparison. Under- and overestimation was random when the automated method was used for creeping bentgrass samples (<80 cm) and the shorter group of juniper root samples (150-550 cm). However, these estimates were much closer to the actual root length, in the ranges evaluated, than the estimates from the grid method. The lengths of long juniper root samples (600-3000 cm) were underestimated consistently with the automated method. The magnitude of this underestimation increased with increasing length. However, the relationship between estimated and actual root length remained linear and was about 76% of the actual length. For the ranges of root length evaluated, this method was found to be useful for root length estimation.

Open access

Ellen T. Paparozzi and H. B. Tukey Jr.

Abstract

Rooted cuttings of Pilea cadierei Gagnep. & Guillaum., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cv. Giant #4 Indianapolis White, Hedera helix L. cv. Thorndale, Pachysandra terminalis Siebold & Zucc. and young plants of Juniperus chinensis L. cv. Mint Julep and Ligustrum X vicaryi were exposed for 3 weeks to either water mist or mist to which a complete all soluble fertilizer (23N-8P-14K) was added; roots and root medium were protected from the mist. The N, P and usually K content of all plants increased after foliar application of nutrients. Pilea, pachysandra and Hedera increased in height, dry weight, and number of lateral breaks; privet increased in height and overall greening of the foliage occurred. The optimum concentration of foliar-applied nutrients was 600 ppm for Pilea, 750 ppm for Hedera and pachysandra and 300 ppm for Ligustrum; higher concentrations caused foliage injury. Injury occurred to chrysanthemum and juniper at all concentrations studied. Cuticle thickness and plant tolerance to foliar nutrition were not correlated.