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Yukihiro Fujime

bunching onion, negi in Japanese, Allium fistulosum . Japanese bunching onion has also many variations and in east Japan, leaf sheaths are blanched by hilling with soil and blanched sheaths are harvested (white negi). In west Japan, leaf sheaths are grown

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Shigenori Yaguchi, Tetsuya Nakajima, Toshihisa Sumi, Naoki Yamauchi, and Masayoshi Shigyo

(green leaves) of japanese bunching onion [ Allium fistulosum (genomes FF)] greatly affects its quality in terms of texture and health-promoting effects. We previously developed eight A. fistulosum -shallot [ A. cepa Aggregatum group (genomes AA

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Ockyung H. Bark, Michael J. Havey, and Joe N. Corgan

Allium fistulosum L. (bunching onion) is resistant to many of the important diseases and pests of Allium cepa L. (bulb onion). Although the first interspecific hybrids were generated more than 50 years ago, there is no conclusive evidence that any desirable trait in bunching onion has been successfully transferred to bulb onion by backcrossing. We identified RFLPs in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes to assess DNA transfer from bunching to bulb onion by backcrossing an interspecific hybrid to a bulb onion. Polymorphisms in the chloroplast genome established that the interspecific hybrid and three putative backcross plants had the cytoplasm of a bunching onion. All 57 random cDNA probes detected polymorphisms between the bulb and bunching onion for at least one of two restriction enzymes. The backcross progenies always possessed the bulb-onion fragments and an excess of probes detected the bunching-onion fragments. Only one plant showed an acceptable fit to the expected 1:1 backcross ratio. Significant deviations from expected segregation ratios may be the result of abnormal meiosis in the interspecific hybrid. However, these observations could also be explained by a previously proposed nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction conditioning preferential survival in the bunching-onion cytoplasm of eggs carrying bunching-onion chromosomes.

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Shinichi Masuzaki, Naoyuki Araki, Naoki Yamauchi, Naoko Yamane, Tadayuki Wako, Akio Kojima, and Masayoshi Shigyo

Bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) has a very large genome composed of a high proportion of repetitive DNAs. Genetic analyses of repetitive sequences may reveal microsatellites in order to increase the number of genetic markers in onion. Thirty microsatellites were previously isolated from an onion genomic library (Fischer and Bachmann, 2000). A complete set of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum) – shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines were used to assign these microsatellites to the chromosomes of A. cepa. Simplified PCR conditions for each microsatellite were determined and 28 of the 30 primer pairs amplified DNA fragments, of which 21 microsatellite markers were assigned to chromosomes of A. cepa. Subsequent mapping of these microsatellites will enable us to establish the chromosomal distribution of these markers.

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Ockyung H. Bark, Michael J. Havey, and Joe N. Corgan

The edible Alliums are economically important world-wide. The bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the most widely grown. The Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum) has many desirable characters, e.g., resistance to pink root, Thrips, smut, maggot, and Botrytis. Transfer of pink root resistance from A. fistulosum into A. cepa has been attempted for over 60 years. However, sterility of the F1 hybrid is a barrier and there is little evidence of gene introgression during backcrossing to A. cepa. Dr. Corgan has made crosses between A. fistulosum as the seed parent and A. cepa. He backcrossed the F1 hybrids to A. cepa and generated BC2 progenies which showed excellent pink root resistance. RFLPs in the chloroplast genome showed all BC2 progenies had either the normal or sterile cytoplasm of A. cepa. This may be due to not strictly maternal inheritance of the chloroplast DNA or a seed mixture during backcrossing. Other interspecific hybrids and their BC1 progenies had the cytoplasm of A. fistulosum. Nuclear RFLPs show hybrid patterns in the F1 plants. BC1 progenies possess some A. fistulosum markers as evidence of DNA introgression from A. fistulosum into the backcross progenies.

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Paul D. Mangum and Ellen B. Peffley

The inheritance and linkage relationships among PGM-1, ADH-1, and 6-PGDH-1 were determined for Allium fistulosum (Japanese bunching onion) individuals. Individuals expressing Pgm-11/Pgm-12, Adh-13/Adh-14, Adh-13/Adh-15, or 6-Pgdh-11/6-Pgdh-12 were selfed seperately. These backcrosses and their reciprocals were made: Pgm-11/Pgm-12 to Pgm-11/Pgm-11 or Pgm-12/Pgm-12; Adh-13/Adh-14 to Adh-13/Adh-13 or Adh-14/Adh-14, 6-Pgdh-11/6-Pgdh-12 to 6-Pgdh-11/6-Pgdh-11 or 6-Pgdh-12/6-Pgdh-12. Progeny segregations were tested for Mendelian inheritance using a chi-square goodness of fit test. Expression of 6-Pgdh has not been previously reported in onion. Two zones of activity were detected and were designated as 6-PGDH-1 and 6-PGDH-2. 6-PGDH-2 was monomorphic for all individuals tested. Progeny segregation of 6-PGDH-1 fit a model for a dimeric enzyme encoded by one disomic locus with two alleles, expressed as fast (1) and slow (2), in a dimeric enzyme pattern in heterozygous individuals.

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Amanda L. Broome and Ellen B. Peffley

This research evaluated, for the NASA ALS program, the effect of spacing and harvest intervals on edible biomass of green salad onions grown at two CO2 levels. Shoot biomass of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum), bulbing onion (A. cepa), and chives (A. schoenoprasum) grown at 10-, 15-, and 20-mm spacings harvested at 7- and 14-day intervals, seven and four harvests, respectively, over 70 days were compared. Onions were grown hydroponically in growth chambers, 16-hour light/8-hour dark, 24/20 °C, 75/99% at ∼450 and 1200 ppm CO2. The design was a completely randomized block with repeated measures; subsamples were plants completely surrounded by neighboring plants. Weekly shoot removal began 28 days after planting (dap); destructive harvest was 70 dap. Length and diameter of longest leaf, weight, and number of leaves/tillers were taken at each harvest; bulb caliper and weight were taken 70 dap. Bunching and bulbing onion leaves were longest at 28 dap and decreased over time; chives were slow to establish but 70 dap had longest leaves. Leaf diameter of all species increased as spacing increased. At 56 through 70 dap chives at all three spacings produced more leaves. Mean weight of shoots differed significantly at 20-mm spacing: chives the least, bulbing onion the most. Bulb weight for bulbing onion and chives increased with increased spacing; bulbing onion weighed significantly more at 15- and 20-mm spacings compared to the other species and spacings. Chives grown at 20-mm spacing had tillering clumps of rhizomes. Total edible biomass weight (bulb, pseudostem, and shoots) of bulbing onion grown at 10-mm spacing exhibited similar ontogeny to chives grown at 10- and 15-mm spacings; bulbing onion grown at 20-mm spacing had the most edible biomass. On average, biomass was greatest in plants grown at 1200 ppm CO2.

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Amanda Broome and Ellen B. Peffley

This research evaluated for the NASA ALS program the effect of plant spacing on edible biomass of green salad onions. The ontogeny of Japanese bunching onion, A. fistulosum; bulbing onion, A. cepa; and chives, A. schoenoprasum grown at 10, 15, and 20-mm spacings harvested weekly were compared. Onions were grown hydroponically in Environmental Growth Chambers 16 hours light/8 hours dark, 24/20 °C, 75/99%, ≈650 μmol·m–2.

Experimental design was a completely randomized block with repeated measures. Subsamples of plants completely surrounded by neighboring plants were chosen at random from experimental units. Weekly removal of shoots began 28 days after planting (dap); destructive harvest was 70 dap. Length and diameter of longest leaf, weight (g), number of leaves/tillers were recorded weekly. Bulb caliper and weight was taken 70 dap. Bunching and bulbing onion leaves were longest at 28 dap; leaf lengths steadily decreased over time. Chives were slower to germinate and establish but at 70 dap had longest leaves of all species. Leaf diameter of all species increased as spacing increased. At 56 and through 70 dap chives at all three spacings produced more leaves. Mean weight of shoots differed significantly at the 20-mm spacing: chives weighed the least and bulbing onion the most. Bulb weight for bulbing onion and chives increased with increased spacing; bulbing onion weighed significantly more at 15 and 20-mm compared to the other species and spacings. Chives grown at 20-mm had tillering clumps of rhizomes. Total edible biomass weight (bulb, pseudostem, shoots) of bulbing onion grown at 10-mm exhibited similar ontogeny to chives grown at 10 and 15-mm spacings; bulbing onion grown at 20-mm had the most edible biomass.

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Shigenori Yaguchi, Masanori Atarashi, Masatoshi Iwai, Shin-ichi Masuzaki, Naoki Yamauchi, and Masayoshi Shigyo

Japanese bunching onion ( Allium fistulosum ) is one of the most important vegetable crops in eastern Asia, especially in Japan, Korea, and China ( Inden and Asahira, 1990 ). Allium fistulosum is a perennial plant, grown commercially as an

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Nobutaka Shiraiwa, Kaori Kikuchi, Ichiro Honda, Masayoshi Shigyo, Hiroko Yamazaki, Daisuke Tanaka, Kenji Tanabe, and Akihiro Itai

present, there are many cultivars and strains adapted to different regions with year-round cultivation being common in Japan. Bunching onion is biennial, usually vernalizing in winter and bolting early the next spring. Plants that have bolted lose their