Various turfgrass species and cultivars are utilized for orchard floor management. Selection and establishment of low-maintenance species compatible with site conditions results in less need for mowing, fertilizing, and pesticide applications. Koelaria macrantha (Ledeb.) J.A. Schultes is a new turfgrass species that has demonstrated outstanding low-maintenance characteristics. This study evaluated the only commercially available cultivar `Barkoel' and three other species, including Festuca arundinacea Schreb (tall fescue), Festuca rubra L. ssp. falax Thuill (chewings fescue), and Festuca longifolia auct. non Thuill (hard fescue). Turf was seeded in a commercial peach orchard in Oct. 1996 and evaluated through Oct. 1999. After 3 years, the hard fescue cultivars had the best quality, with excellent density and low weed populations. Chewings fescue also had good density and few weeds. Tall fescue had good density, but more weeds than the hard and chewings fescues. Koelaria macrantha `Barkoel' had unacceptable quality, with poor density and the highest weed populations. The fine fescues, hard and chewings, suffered damage from orchard maintenance equipment. Damage was most severe during heat and drought stress in Summer 1999. Growers should limit equipment traffic on hard and chewings fescues during heat and drought stress. Tall fescue showed no significant damage from equipment, but it demonstrated a faster vertical growth rate. This increases the need for mowing. Koelaria macrantha `Barkoel' was not damaged by equipment. While Koelaria had the least density and most weeds after 3 years, it has performed well in our other tests. Higher seeding rates or modifications in seedbed preparation may improve density and reduce weed infestations.
J.D. Willmott, E.T. Foster, R. Pavis, and J.L. Frecon
Ramon Dolcet-Sanjuan and Elisabet Claveria
Micropropagation of Pistacia vera `Mateur' was improved by adding MeJA to the multiplication and rooting media. Shoot-tip cultures established from grafted trees were maintained on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 5 μm BA and 0.05 μm IBA. Adding 0.3, 1, or 3.2 μm MeJA improved shoot multiplication rates 2.5, 3.0, and 2.3, respectively. There was a significant interaction between the effects of auxin and temperature on the percentage of shoots forming roots. At 25C, the percentage of shoots forming roots was higher in the presence of NAA than IAA or IBA, whereas, at 28C, there was no difference among the auxins. Adding MeJA to the best auxin treatments-31.6 μm NAA at 25C and 31.6 μm IAA at 28C-increased the percentage of shoots forming roots and number of roots per shoot but decreased root length. More than 80% of the shoots rooted at 25C when 1 μM MeJA was added to the root induction medium, which contained 31.6 μm NAA, and the root elongation medium, without auxin. The large number of short roots induced by MeJA facilitated plantlet transfer to soil and acclimation. Chemical names used: methyl jasmonate (MeJA); N6-benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole3-acetic acid (IAA).
Satoru Kondo, Futoshi Yazama, Kasinee Sungcome, Sirichai Kanlayanarat, and Hideharu Seto
1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail email@example.com . We thank Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd., Tokyo, for providing JA and MeJA.
Satoru Kondo, Akihiro Tomiyama, and Hideharu Seto
1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org . We thank Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd., Tokyo, for providing JA, MeJA, and PDJ. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges
Vincent A. Fritz, Veronica L. Justen, Ann M. Bode, Todd Schuster, and Min Wang
Jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile equivalent, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant hormones involved in chemical and physiological defense responses. MeJA and JA have no direct impact on plant herbivores, but instead contribute to an intracellular
S.M. Smith, J.W. Scott, J.A. Bartz, and S.A. Sargent
parental performance and from previous work ( Bartz and Scott, 2005 ; J.A. Bartz and J.W. Scott, unpublished). Finally, our analysis indicated the type of gene action conferring low stem scar absorption but not the number of genes involved. Experience
S.M. Smith, J.W. Scott, J.A. Bartz, and S.A. Sargent
water uptake and hold fruit at least 4 h before immersion in the dump tank, especially when environmental conditions favor the pathogen growth in the field. Literature Cited Bartz, J.A. 1999 Washing fresh fruits and vegetables
The effect of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), commercially available as ReTain, and three organo-silicone surfactants were evaluated in a series of four experiments over a 2-year period in two commercial peach orchards. Four rates of AVG (0, 66, 132, and 264 mg·L–1 AVG; all applied with 0.05% Sylgard 309) and three surfactants (0.05% Sylgard 309; 0.05% Regulaid; and 0.50% LI-700; all applied with 132 mg·L–1 AVG) were applied to `Venture' and `Babygold 7' peach trees 10 days before first harvest. Fruit were harvested according to commercial standard maturation criteria of background color, suture filling, and fruit size. Treatments were assessed in relation to fruit maturity, delay in harvest, fruit size and yield, fruit quality (flesh firmness and brix), as well as fruit quality following 2 weeks of cold storage. Based on sequential harvest data, the maturation of the AVG treated trees was delayed by about 3 to 4 days. Fruit from AVG treated trees were firmer at harvest and 2 weeks following cold storage at 2°C. However, no additional increase in fruit size or yield was detected. In addition, the addition of a surfactant was not necessary for AVG to be efficacious for delaying maturity and enhancing firmness when applied at 132 mg·L–1 AVG. However, when the three surfactants were compared, Regulaid and Li 700 advanced color development in one experiment and Li-700 resulted in firmer fruit in another. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine applications to the clingstone cultivars `Venture' and `Babygold 7' can be used successfully to manage harvest activities by delaying the onset of picking and improving fruit firmness.
Thirteen sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) genotypes were characterized for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. hapla, and M. arenaria races 1 and 2 in greenhouse tests. The following sweetpotato genotypes representing a range of reactions to M. incognita were evaluated: U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 399163 (highly resistant = HR), Sumor (HR), Nemagold (HR), Excel (HR), Tinian (HR), Hernandez (resistant = R), Jewel (R), Regal (R), Porto Rico (intermediate = I), Centennial (susceptible = S), Georgia Jet (S), Sulfur (S), and Beauregard (S). Meloidogyne incognita was most pathogenic to sweetpotato of the four Meloidogyne spp. evaluated in these studies. The U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 399163 and Sumor were resistant to M. incognita in all tests. Only two genotypes, Beauregard and Porto Rico, were susceptible to M. javanica. All genotypes evaluated were resistant to M. hapla, M. arenaria race 1, and M. arenaria race 2. Sumor, U.S. PI 399163, and Nemagold appear to provide the highest levels of resistance against the four Meloidogyne spp. used in these studies. Since M. incognita is the most commonly occurring root-knot nematode species in sweetpotato growing areas of the southern U.S. and is pathogenic to most of the commonly grown sweetpotato cultivars, efforts to develop resistant cultivars that have desirable horticultural characteristics for the U.S. market should be directed toward this root-knot nematode species.