). Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray (inkberry) is a native evergreen shrub with glossy green foliage and black berry-like drupes. This species grows to a mature height of 1.8 to 2.4 m and a width of 2.4 to 3.0 m ( Dirr, 1998 ). It is a desirable ornamental plant
Youping Sun, Donglin Zhang, and John Smagula
Bryan J. Peterson, Stephanie E. Burnett, and Olivia Sanchez
Although overhead mist revolutionized the propagation industry, it does suffer from potential drawbacks that include the application of large volumes of water, potentially unsanitary conditions, irregular misting coverage, and leaching of foliar nutrients. We explored the feasibility of submist as an alternative as it might avoid these problems by applying water exclusively from below the cutting, which is inserted basally into an enclosed rooting chamber. We propagated cuttings of korean lilac (Syringa pubescens ssp. patula) and inkberry (Ilex glabra) using both overhead mist and submist to compare effectiveness of the systems. Cuttings of korean lilac were wounded and dipped basally into 8000 mg·L−1 of the potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA), and those in the overhead mist systems were inserted into coarse perlite. Cuttings of inkberry were wounded and treated with 5000 mg·L−1 K-IBA, and those in the overhead mist systems were inserted into 50:50 peat:perlite (by vol). Cuttings of korean lilac in the submist systems produced more than twice as many roots as cuttings in the overhead mist systems, with roots more than 2.6 times the length. Similarly, cuttings of inkberry in the submist systems produced more than three times the root counts and root lengths as cuttings in the overhead mist systems. For korean lilac, root dry weights averaged 58 mg for cuttings in the submist system, compared with only 18 mg among cuttings receiving overhead mist. Likewise, root dry weights averaged 70 and 7 mg for cuttings of inkberry propagated by submist and overhead mist, respectively. Rooted cuttings of korean lilac transplanted well into a soilless substrate, where they more than tripled their root biomass to 218 mg (vs. 59 mg for cuttings transplanted from overhead mist). We did not evaluate transplant performance of inkberry. Our results show that submist systems might merit consideration for the propagation of woody plants by leafy stem cuttings.
S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, D.R. Sandrock, M. Paz, C. Wiese, and Meghan M. Brennan
Although new and innovative measures to reduce landscape water consumption are being sought, traditional methods of water restrictions and plant selection prevail. Species native to North America are often promoted as drought tolerant with little information to support or refute such claims. Furthermore, species performance is unknown in maintained environments such as commercial and residential landscapes. Thus, 10 native and 10 exotic species, commonly used in landscapes, were evaluated independently for postestablishment growth and aesthetics under irrigated and nonirrigated landscape conditions. Growth indices were recorded monthly, with dieback and plant density evaluated at termination of the experiment. At termination of the experiment, canopy size of eight native [beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus), yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria ‘Nana’), virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica), wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), chickasaw plum (Prunus angustifolia), saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), and coontie (Zamia floridana)] and eight exotic [golden dewdrop (Duranta erecta), cape jasmine (Gardenia augusta), crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), oleander (Nerium oleander), japanese pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira), indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica), sweet viburnum (Viburnum odoratissimum), and sandankwa viburnum (V. suspensum)] species were similar for irrigated and nonirrigated treatments. Irrigation resulted in larger canopy sizes for two native [walter's viburnum (V. obovatum) and inkberry (I. glabra)] and two nonnative [japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum) and fringe flower (Loropetalum chinensis)] species. Among the native species with larger canopy sizes under irrigated conditions, all are indigenous to swamps and streams. With the exception of virginia sweetspire, plant density and dieback were similar for irrigated and nonirrigated plants of all taxa examined. Irrigated virginia sweetspire plants had higher plant density and dieback ratings than nonirrigated plants. Results indicate that, aesthetically, irrigated and nonirrigated plants were similar. Data emphasize the importance of selecting plant material adapted to existing environmental landscape conditions.
Katie L. Dylewski, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt, and Charlene LeBleu
The effect of short interval cyclic flooding on root and shoot growth of ‘Shamrock’ inkberry holly (Ilex glabra), ‘Henry's Garnet’ sweetspire (Itea virginica), and ‘Winterthur’ possumhaw (Viburnum nudum) was studied in a greenhouse in Auburn, AL. Liners (4.4 inches long) of each species were planted into trade 1-gal pots in 1 pine bark:1 peat by volume (PB:P) or fine textured calcined clay (CC). ‘Shamrock’ inkberry holly and ‘Henry's Garnet’ sweetspire were planted 18 Apr. 2008; the experiment was repeated with the addition of ‘Winterthur’ possumhaw on 16 June 2008. Plants were flooded to substrate level for 0 (non-flooded), 3, or 7 days. Flooding cycles were repeated at least five times with 7 days of draining between each flood cycle. During draining, plants received no irrigation. Non-flooded plants were watered as needed. Flooded plants for all species except ‘Winterthur’ possumhaw showed decreased root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and final growth index when compared with non-flooded plants. Survival was higher in CC than PB:P for both experiments. All plants maintained good visual quality and shoot growth. As a result, overall, these plants seemed tolerant of flooding despite differences in growth.
Mack Thetford, Debbie Miller, Kathryn Smith, and Mica Schneider
Survival and subsequent growth of two beach species produced in containers of differing volume and depth were evaluated following transplant on Eglin Air Force Base, Santa Rosa Island, Fla. Rooted cuttings of gulf bluestem (Schizachyrium maritimum) were produced in four container types: 1-gal (gallon), 0.75-gal treepot, 1-qt (quart), or 164-mL Ray leach tube (RLT) containers. Root and shoot biomass of gulf bluestem harvested after 12 weeks in container production were greatest for plants grown in treepot containers and root: shoot ratio decreased as container size increased. Regardless of container size, survival of beach-planted gulf bluestem was 100%. Basal area of plants from standard gallon and treepot containers was similar 11 months after transplant and basal area for plants from treepot containers remained greater than plants from quart or RLT containers. Effect of planting zone [92, 124, 170, and 200 m landward of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf)] on transplant survival was also evaluated for inkberry (Ilex glabra). Seedling liners of inkberry were produced in 3-gal treepot or gallon containers. Inkberry was taller when grown in 3-gal treepot containers than when grown in gallon containers. Regardless of container size, all inkberry planted 92 m from the Gulf died. Inkberry survival (>75%) when grown in 3-gal treepot containers was two to six times greater than plants grown in gallon containers (15%, 50%, 40%; 124, 170, and 200 m from Gulf, respectively). After 15 months, inkberry grown in 3-gal treepot containers remained larger with 1.5 times the mean maximum height and twice the mean canopy area compared to those grown in gallon containers.
Yujie Yang, Donglin Zhang, Zhihui Li, Xiaoling Jin, and Jinying Dong
al., 2011 ), and Ilex glabra ( Sun et al., 2010 ). ZT also significantly increased the shoot expansion, while 6-BA reduced the shoot growth. Both height (the longest shoot) and average shoot length under all 6-BA treatments were shorter than that of
Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley
recommended to promote adventitious root formation on stem cuttings of Heller’s japanese holly ( Berry, 1994 ; Dirr and Heuser, 1987 ). Stem cuttings of other hollies, including ‘Dwarf Burford’ holly ( Ilex cornuta ), ‘Nigra’ inkberry ( Ilex glabra ), and
Ling Yu, Hongwei Chen, Peipei Hong, Hongli Wang, and Kefeng Liu
paniculata ( Purkayastha et al., 2008 ), Ilex glabra ( Sun et al., 2010 ), and Chrysanthemum morifolium ( Song et al., 2011 ). Cytokinins, including 6-BA, have shown to be able to induce the formation of shoot apical meristems during shoot organogenesis
.8.2-77.4 cm 3 , while those with KNAA were over 93.7 cm 3 . For the propagation of Ilex suaveolens , softwood cuttings treated with KNAA at 8000 ppm were recommended. Cold Hardiness of Ilex glabra Cultivars from Field Trial and Laboratory Test Youping
Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley
(NAA). In a study examining the application of auxin to cuttings via the rooting substrate, Blythe et al. (2004) noted that cuttings of dwarf yaupon holly ( Ilex vomitoria ‘Nana’) and ‘Nigra’ inkberry ( Ilex glabra ) prepared in January could be