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Neil S. Mattson, Elizabeth M. Lamb, Brian Eshenaur, and John Sanderson

objective of the program was to use an interactive small-group format to encourage active learning of topics related to IPM and plant culture leading to practice change and improved profitability in greenhouse operations. Initially, the program was offered

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G.R. Brown, J. Hartman, R. Bessin, T. Jones, and J. Strang

Apple growers would like to use pesticides efficiently and diminish concerns about food safety and pesticide usage. The 1992 Apple IPM Program objectives were: 1) to demonstrate the application of Integrated Pest Management practices in commercial orchards and, 2) to provide the training and support needed to help these growers become self sufficient in IPM practices. Grower training meetings and regular scouting of the orchards were the primary educational methods. End-of-the-season evaluations of past and disease incidence were made. Except for Frogeye Leaf Spot, there were no significant differences in insect pest, disease levels or in fruit quality attributes in IPM versus standard blocks. The IPM blocks had significantly more mite incidence. Growers did produce commercially acceptable crops using IPM based decisions while reducing the average past control cost by $56 par acre. Educational programs did help growers to be more proficient in making IPM based decisions.

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Laura Pickett Pottorff and Karen L. Panter

Integrated pest management (IPM) is an approach to managing pests that uses appropriate physical, cultural, biological, and chemical tactics that are safe, profitable, and environmentally compatible ( Thomas and Rajotte, 2004 ). Currently

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Michael A. Schnelle and Sharon L. von Broembsen

A pilot IPM program has been implemented for the commercial greenhouse industry in Oklahoma. Key growers and cooperative extension agents have formed working IPM teams across the state. After administering a pretest to establish an educational baseline, IPM workshops have been presented to growers and agents. By use of these specialist-mediated workshops key growers have received sufficient training to implement a multi-phase IPM program. Establishment of proper cultural and management practices has occurred within the first six months of training. As a result, advanced growers are now implementing basic IPM practices and are anticipating the use of biological controls within this year. Due to the success of the pilot program, workshops will be offered statewide next year. Extension IPM bulletins are being written to facilitate the comprehensive effort. This pilot program should serve as a model and impetus for extension specialists and greenhouse grower organizations in other states to incorporate IPM strategies in their production and management practices.

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Richard E. Durham, John R. Hartman, and Monte P. Johnson

A home landscape integrated pest management (IPM) extension program has been initiated in the Univ. of Kentucky College of Agriculture. In order for this program to be effective, activities must integrate aspects of general landscape management with pest management. The main tenets of the project encompass four areas: making wise choices when selecting plants for the landscape; practicing proper planting and transplanting techniques; maintaining the health of the plant in the landscape using proper watering, fertilizing, and pruning techniques; and practicing an integrated approach to managing pests in the landscape. Outreach mechanisms for this project include the preparation and broadcast of radio scripts, the production of educational videos for use by county agents, print material, and addition of a home landscape IPM section to the Univ. of Kentucky IPM web page. Examples of these activities will be presented. The initial emphasis of the program is on woody landscape plants; however, other areas of landscape management, including annuals and perennials, turf, and home fruit and vegetables, will be added as time and funding allow. This outreach program may be the first exposure many people have to IPM principles and thus it will play an important roll in educating the public to integrated pest management practices that are a vital part of modern agriculture production.

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James C. Sellmer, Kathleen M. Kelley, Susan Barton, and David J. Suchanic

Management (IPM) program, University Park. We extend special thanks to Dr. Robert Berghage and Mr. Martin McGann for reviewing an earlier draft of the manuscript. Use of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement of products named nor

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Mary Lamberts and Adrian Hunsberger

When Master Gardeners first begin a training class, their preconceived notions about concepts such as IPM, pests and pest management are usually very similar to those of the general gardening public. Master Gardeners interact extensively with home owners and are often either the first or the only person from an Extension office with whom an individual speaks. We designated part of their initial training to a module aimed at getting them to understand basic concepts about IPM, pests and pest management. Slides were used to review the different types of pests/pesticides and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles that apply to a) insects and related organisms, b) diseases and c) weeds. These were accompanied by very simple guidelines for each pest group, stressing that pesticides should not automatically be the home owner's first choice. The pesticide label reading portion of this module started with basic information about pesticide labels themselves. From there, Master Gardener trainees were led through an exercise where they had to find specific information on various labels: Sevin, RoundUp, Daconil 2787, Brush-B-Gon, Phyton 27, Dipel, and Amdro. For fruit and vegetable use, they had to find preharvest intervals and any restrictions on planting. For all products, they looked for rates, timing, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)—if listed, and noted label variations. Pre-training scores averaged 60% while post-training scores were 90% or higher.

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W.R. Stevenson, D. Curwen, K.A. Kelling, J.A. Wyman, L.K. Binning, and T.R. Connell

The Wisconsin potato crop is managed intensively through multiple inputs of pesticide, fertilizer, and irrigation. Beginning in 1979, a multidisciplinary team at the Univ. of Wisconsin developed an effective Integrated Pest Management Program to address key management decisions associated with this crop. The program fostered the development of several private IPM businesses and continues to help increase the acceptance of IPM technology by the potato industry. Results of component and integrative research, funded by industry, state, and federal sources, provided the essential ingredients for development of computer software now used for managing the potato crop on ≈ 70,000 acres (28,330 ha) of potatoes in a multistate area. The software helps growers determine the need for and timing of critical crop inputs. By reducing or eliminating unneeded pesticide and irrigation applications, the software helps to improve overall production efficiency. Industry adoption of this software is providing the impetus for development of more comprehensive software that includes additional aspects of potato production as well as the production of crops grown in rotation with potato.

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Matthew R. Chappell, Sarah A. White, Amy F. Fulcher, Anthony V. LeBude, Gary W. Knox, and Jean-Jacques B. Dubois

]. The membership footprint of the SNIPM Working Group, formed to provide coordinated science-based information on integrated pest management (IPM) for nursery crop production in the southeastern United States, includes Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North

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Amy Fulcher, Dava Hayden, and Winston Dunwell

The objectives of Kentucky's Sustainable Nursery Production Practices Extension Program are for 1) the Kentucky nursery industry to continue sustained growth and 2) Kentucky growers to produce high quality plants, efficiently use pesticides, be stewards of their land and Kentucky's environment. Sustainable Nursery Program Components are 1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Nursery Scouting, Scout Training and Scouting Education for growers, Extension workers, and students; 2) Best Management Practice (BMP) Workshops: BMP VI: Disease Demolition Workshop; 3) Production Practice Demonstration: Pruning Training, Pesticide Handling, and Safety and Environmental Stewartship. 4.) Research: Pruning protocols; Media and media amendments; Precision Fertilization and Irrigation. The Kentucky Nursery Crops Scouting Program scouting guidelines were developed and contained: a weekly scouting/trapping guide; a listing of which pests to look for and on what host plants, and a detailed methodology of precisely how to look for the pest, its damage, and how to record this information such that comparisons could be made across nurseries and seasons.