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Tara Baugher, Montserrat Fonseca Estrada, Kelly Lowery and Héctor Núñez Contreras

The 2012 Census of Agriculture [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2014 ] indicates that Hispanic/Latino farm owners represent a promising next generation of specialty crop growers. While principal operators of all farms decreased by 4% between

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Elsa Sánchez, Maria Gorgo-Gourovitch and Lee Stivers

The terms Hispanic and Latinx have distinct meanings. Hispanic refers to people whose origin is in Spanish-speaking countries, whereas Latinx is a term inclusive of all genders and referring to people whose origin is in Latin American countries

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Eliezer S. Louzada, Hilda Sonia de Rio, Allison J. Abell, Gerson Peltz and Michael W. Persans

United States, a new pool of scientists must be recruited from domestic sources to fill this labor gap. Hispanic Americans and other minority groups represent an untapped reservoir of talent that could be used to fill this shortage in science, if proper

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Alejandra Acuna, Hannah Mathers and Pope Jennifer

In 1998, the wholesale nursery industry represented the largest sector in horticultural sales in the United States and 11% of the total value of U.S. agricultural production. The majority of jobs available in the nursery industry are labor intensive. In Ohio, 60% of the nursery workforce is composed of Hispanic laborers. A survey conducted in 2000 targeting Hispanic nursery workers in Oregon and Ohio revealed a great need for basic technical information in their native language. In order to address this issue in Ohio, a Spanish language nursery tour was developed in 2002 and offered annually thereafter. Conducted entirely in Spanish, the tour focuses on basic technical information in the area of field and container production. Tours take place at commercial nursery sites in the Lake County region of Ohio. Demonstrations at the nurseries have highlighted such practices as planting, pruning, and irrigation. Interest in disseminating more technical information in Spanish to the Hispanic workforce has developed as a result of these tours. In Jan. 2005, supervisors of Hispanic nursery workers were surveyed at the Central Environmental Nursery Trade Show (“CENTS”) in Columbus, Ohio, to determine the level of interest in technical education programs for Hispanic employees (65%) and what programs were needed (Safety 16%, Pruning 14%, and English 13%). A multi-state survey in English and Spanish will be conducted over the next two years (2005 and 2006). The goal of this project is to better understand the backgrounds and technical needs of the workers in seven states filling predominantly manual labor positions, in order to help stabilize and engage the workforce through education.

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Hannah Mathers

At least 90% or more of the Oregon nursery industry workforce is composed of Hispanic employees who understand little English, with Spanish their primary language. Currently, most of the technical information available to the nursery industry is in English. A Spanish translation of the OSU/ODA Nursery Newsletter to Hispanic workers began in Aug. 1999. The first newsletter contained a questionnaire to determine the foremost technical topic interests. Surveys were also conducted at the Spanish sessions at the Ornamentals Northwest Seminars and of 40 Hispanic employees during visits to five Oregon nurseries. In total, 340 surveys were conducted with 158 respondents. At the Ornamental Northwest seminars, 57% of those attending the Spanish sessions answered the survey. Eighty-seven percent replied that insect control information was their leading technical information interest, 81% disease and 80% weeds. Other interests were nutrition at 73% and propagation and plant identification, both at 67%. Twenty-one percent of newsletter readers responded to the questionnaire. Like the seminar respondents, newsletter readers indicated pest control information was very important to them; however, 91% found all the information presented of value and 97% wanted to continue to receive future issues. This finding was consistent with responses from nursery visits where respondents indicated their delight to receive technical information in Spanish.

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Pedro Perdomo* and Kenneth Karamichael

Industry statistics indicate that there are approximately 150,000 people working in the green industry in New Jersey. About 50% to 60% are Hispanic. Nationally, 43% of Hispanics are not proficient in English. The education of Hispanic workers in their own language increases job skills, improves efficiency, and on the job safety. Spanish language horticultural courses were offered to educate members of the landscape community in New Jersey. Spanish language courses included general turf management, pruning of trees and shrubs, plant identification, hazardous tree identification, and basic pesticide training. The landscape classes began with a slide presentation that covered basic concepts, materials, and techniques that the landscaper should be aware of. Whenever possible, the courses were taught in a bilingual (Spanish/English) format to help participants familiarize themselves with English terms. Along with the in-class training, outdoor demonstrations were incorporated into all courses and participants were given the opportunity to practice what they had learned in the classroom. Over one hundred fifty employees registered for the classes between Jan. and Dec. 2003. Certificates of attendance were issued to all participants and were considered as a positive component of the courses. About 24% of the participants attended more than one of the courses and 100% would recommend the courses to their friends and co-workers. Seventy five percent of landscape business owners stated that they would consider sending other employees to future courses. Fifty percent of the participants were interested in attending courses that covered technical information, such as those offered to the English speaking landscape community.

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Hannah M. Mathers, Alejandra A. Acuña, Donna R. Long, Bridget K. Behe, Alan W. Hodges, John J. Haydu, Ursula K. Schuch, Susan S. Barton, Jennifer H. Dennis, Brian K. Maynard, Charles R. Hall, Robert McNeil and Thomas Archer

collecting demographic data regarding the nursery industry workforce specifically were conducted in Oregon and Ohio. These surveys determined that 90% and 60%, respectively, of the workforce was Hispanic ( Mathers, 2003 ). Currently, production-level labor is

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Gilberto Uribe and Luisa Santamaria

appropriate for agricultural workers. This is despite the 63.5% increase in Oregon’s Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010 ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 ). Previous extension work has demonstrated that reaching out to the Hispanic population often requires

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Cesar Asuaje, Palm Beach County and Joe Garofalo

Hispanic agricultural workers are difficult to reach and educate. Many can't benefit from Extension programs because of the language barrier, education level and social factors. Safety (WPS) and Pesticide Applicator certification are required for workers to find employment and advance. In Florida, the total non-fatal agricultural occupational injuries among Hispanic workers rose 33% between 1999 and 2001, and total fatal injuries rose 18% between 1999 and 2002. Florida laws require that pesticide applicator exams be in English. Many Hispanics have experience and knowledge in pesticide use, but lack of sufficient language skills prevents their becoming certified. The University of Florida is addressing this issue with an extension agent whose main responsibility is to design and deliver programs in Spanish. First, we assessed the needs and started networking within the Hispanic community. Concurrently, training programs were developed in WPS and 7 certification categories in greatest demand. These have been offered in 11 south Florida counties to 4000+ workers. After each class, presentations were modified to incorporate effective content and methods, based on surveys and test scores. Among participants who took an exam, the passing rate has risen from below 50% to above 60%. The following have given good results: use two native speakers (Spanish and English); conduct the class in Spanish, but emphasize written and spoken English words; both trainers must interact with the audience; use props or good illustrations; teach at all levels, but recommend the exam only to those who can read an English label.

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Alejandra Acuna, Hannah Mathers and Luke Case

Hispanics are becoming the main source of labor in many productive- and service-oriented businesses in the United States, and the nursery industry is one example. Employers invest much time and money into employees, making the employees their biggest investment. However, the educational needs of Hispanic employees have not been adequately addressed, and no formal educational program for Hispanic workers in the nursery industry has been implemented and tested in Ohio. This project has two objectives: 1) measure the impact of a bilingual educational program containing instruction in horticulture and instruction in life skills to a Hispanic workforce, and 2) investigate which type of training is more essential to the stabilization of the Hispanic family unit, technical horticultural training, or training in life-skills. Eight nurseries throughout Ohio were selected to participate in this project. At each of the nurseries, an average group size of 15 employees was trained. Only half of this number participated in the social skills lessons to determine differences between the group who received social skills lessons and the group who did not. Three horticultural topics were selected: basic plant structure and development, pruning, and nutrition. Forty-minute lessons in Spanish with key concepts in English were prepared with the topics mentioned. Three social skills topics were selected: meeting your and your family's needs in the United States, social support in your community, and communication. In order to measure the impact of a bilingual educational program, two tests (The Rosenberg Selfeteem and Index of Family Relationship) were applied before and after the program was performed. A course evaluation was completed by each of the participants after the program was completed.