Dormant, intact crowns were used to determine the cold hardiness of the herbaceous perennial Heuchera sanguinea `Chatterbox'. Crowns were placed in moist cheesecloth, wrapped in aluminum foil, and subjected to -4,-6,-8,-10,-12,-14, -16, or -18C in a programmable freezer. Regrowth quality ratings and dry-mass measurement decreased linearly with temperature. No regrowth was evident from any crown exposed to -12C or lower temperatures. Freezing dormant plant crowns proved an efficient and reliable technique for estimating cold hardiness of Heuchera `Chatterbox'.
Jeffery K. Iles and Nancy Howard Agnew
Mei Yuan, William H. Carlson, Royal D. Heins, and Arthur C. Cameron
Most plants have a postgermination juvenile phase in which flower induction will not occur. Some species require a cold period for flower induction and will not respond to the cold treatments during the juvenile phase. We determined juvenile phases of Coreopsis grandiflora `Sunray', Gaillardia grandiflora `Goblin', Heuchera sanguinea `Bressingham', and Rudbeckia fulgida `Goldsturm'. Plants were exposed to 5C for 0, 10, or 15 weeks when Coreopsis had 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 leaves (>1 cm); Gallardia, 4, 8, 12, or 16 leaves; Heuchera, 8, 12, 16, or 20 leaves; Rudbeckia, 5, 10, 15, or 20 leaves. Plants were grown under a 4-h night interruption lighting (LD) or under a 9-h photoperiod (SD) after cold treatments. Based on time to flower and final leaf count, the juvenility of Coreopsis, Gaillardia, Heuchera, and Rudbeckia ended when they had about 6, 10, 12, and 15 leaves, respectively. Cold treatments were necessary for flower induction of Coreopsis and Heuchera and they increased the flowering percentage of Gaillardia and Rudbeckia. Heuhera was a day-neutral plant, Rudbeckia was on obligate LD plant, and Gaillardia and Coreopsis were quantitative LD plants.
Susan S. Han
Postharvest quality of cut Heuchera sanguinea Engelm. `Splendens' and `Bressingham' was significantly improved and vase life significantly increased by pulsing the inflorescences with 4 mm silver thiosulfate (STS) for 4 hours followed by placing the stems in vase solutions containing 0.5% sucrose and 200 mg·L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate. Under these conditions, nearly all of the buds (>92%) on inflorescences harvested with ≈2% to 3% open flowers developed to anthesis, in comparison with 26% to 28% of the controls. Sucrose concentrations higher than 1% were detrimental and resulted in stem toppling. Treatment with 4 mm STS for 4 hours delayed bud and flower abscission, but longer treatment times resulted in blackening and shriveling of the flower buds. With the absence of sucrose in the vase solutions, flower buds on STS-treated inflorescences did not continue to develop. Ethylene is probably involved in the natural senescence of the flower buds, since exogenous ethylene induced rapid flower abscission, and senescence was delayed by treatment with STS.
Sean J. Markovic and James E. Klett
used in these studies were ‘Snow Angel’ coral bells ( Heuchera sanguinea ) and Orange Carpet hummingbird trumpet ( Epilobium canum ssp. garrettii ‘PWWG01S’). During meetings with greenhouse and nursery operators who are propagating the two herbaceous
Shana G. Brown and James E. Klett
Stock plant productivity is an important concern for growers of ‘Snow Angel’ coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea) because this variety produces a limited number of basal cuttings. The objective of the study was to determine the best growth substrate and container size combination to maximize productivity of stock plants. A secondary objective was to determine if the stock plant treatments influenced the rooting of vegetative cuttings. The study used three different container sizes (2.8, 11.4, and 14.6 L) and four commercial soilless substrates that were primarily composed of the following: bark, peat, and perlite (substrate 1); bark, peat, and vermiculite (substrate 2); bark, peat, and coarse perlite (substrate 3); and peat (substrate 4). Two stock plant experiments were conducted using the same 12 treatment combinations, and a subset of those stock plants was randomly selected for the rooting studies that immediately followed each stock plant experiment. Stock plants responded to substrate treatments differently depending on the batch of substrate in which they were grown. The most successful stock plants, which produced more cuttings per plant and per square foot, as well as larger cuttings, were those grown in substrate 3 (Expt. 1) and substrate 2 (Expt. 2). Regardless of the substrate, the highest number of cuttings per square foot was obtained from stock plants grown in 2.8-L containers, indicating that the smaller containers allow for the most efficient use of space when growing ‘Snow Angel’ stock plants for 6 to 8 months. The rooting of vegetative cuttings was successful (98% to 100% of cuttings rooted after 4 weeks under mist) for all treatment combinations, although higher numbers of visible roots were produced during the second study and may be due to larger fresh weights of cuttings.
Andrea Crowell and Steven E. Newman
The cut-flower industry is continually searching for unique products to introduce to the floral industry. Our objective was to select potential species for trial as new greenhouse-grown alternative cut flowers. Hardy perennials from the Rock/Alpine Garden at the Denver Botanical Garden served as the selection pool. Plants in this collection were fitting due to their durability in Colorado conditions and their rugged unique beauty. Several trial cuts of potential species were taken, and the flowers were evaluated for flower size, stem length, stem strength, foliage, vase life, usefulness, and general aesthetic quality. Next, an informal survey of growers, retailers, researchers, and consumers was taken to determine which flowers had already been seen on the market and which flowers would be potentially successful in the trade. After assimilating the information, the following six species were selected for trial future greenhouse production: Anthyllis vulneraria, Dianthus giganteus, Diascia integerrima, Echium lusitanium, Heuchera sanguinea `Bressingham Hybrids', and Trollius yunnanensis.
Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson
Twenty-four herbaceous perennial species were treated at 5C for 0 or 15 weeks. Critical photoperiods for flower initiation and development with and without a cold treatment were determined. Photoperiods were 10, 12, 14, 16, and 24 h of continuous light and 9 h plus a 4-h night interruption. Continuous photoperiodic treatments consisted of 9-h natural days extended with light from incandescent lamps. Response to cold and photoperiod varied by species; Scabiosa caucasica `Butterfly Blue' flowered without a cold treatment under all photoperiods after 8 to 10 weeks of forcing, but plant height increased from 14 to 62 cm as daylength increased. Rudbeckia fulgida `Goldsturm' flowered without cold after 13 to 15 weeks of forcing, but only under 16 hours of continuous light and night interruption treatments. Heuchera sanguinea `Bressingham Hybrids' did not flower without cold under any photoperiod but did flower under all photoperiods with cold. The only Lavendula angustifolia `Munstead Dwarf' plants that flowered without cold were those under 24-h continuous light; ≈60% flowered. After cold, some lavender plants flowered under all photoperiods, and the flowering percentage increased with increasing daylength.
David Staats, James Klett, Teri Howlett, and Matt Rogoyski
During the 2005 season, three preemergence herbicides were applied to four container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and application rates were: 1) Pendimethalin (Pendulum 2G) 2.24, 4.48, and 8.96 kg/ha; 2) Trifluralin and Isoxaben (Snapshot 2.5 TG) 2.8, 5.6, and 11.2 kg/ha; and 3) S-metolachlor (Pennant Magnum 7.6 EC) 2.8, 5.6, and 11.2 kg/ha. Herbicides were applied to Coral Bells (Heuchera sanguinea), Hopflower Oregano (Origanum libanoticum), CORONADO™ Hyssop (Agastache aurantiaca), and SPANISH PEAKS™ Foxglove (Digitalis thapsi). Treatments were applied twice with 30 days between applications. Plants were evaluated for phytotoxicity after 1, 2, and 4 weeks after applying herbicide treatments. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on any of the plants treated with Pendulum, and plant size (dry mass) was not affected. Snapshot resulted in visual phytotoxicity with Digitalis and Heuchera at the higher rates and also resulted in smaller plants. Pennant Magnum caused phytotoxicity at all rates in all plants and resulted in significantly smaller plants than the control. Weed control was very good with all herbicides, but did not control every weed.
Hua Q. Zhao, Qing H. He, Li L. Song, Mei F. Hou, and Zhi G. Zhang
., 2006 ). Although in vitro propagation of Heuchera is still comparatively rare, micropropagation of Heuchera sanguinea Engelm. has been reported ( Hosoki and Kajino, 2003 ; Miura et al., 1995 ; Stapfer and Heuser, 1986 ). Primarily, Stapfer and
John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach
applications. Consumer interest in dark purple to black-pigmented landscape and garden plants emerged at least a decade ago with the introduction of dark-leaved coral bells ( Heuchera sanguinea Engelm. ‘Palace Purple’) followed by black-leaved Canna species