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Eugene K. Blythe, Cecil Pounders, Michael Anderson, Earl Watts and Barbara Watts

in central Arkansas in 2001, with a follow-up survey of 500 cultivars in 2002 ( Robbins, 2003 ), with 75% of these cultivars also surveyed in the prior year. As of early 2015, over 78,000 cultivars have been registered with the American Hemerocallis

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Ashley N. Pollard*, Patti C. Coggins and Patricia R. Knight

Flowers are traditionally used to flavor and garnish dishes. There are many different varieties of edible flowers such as daylilies (Hemerocallis sp.). Daylilies come in many varieties and colors. Their blooms and buds are tasty and nutritious. The objective of this study was to indicate most preferred to least preferred among 15 daylily cultivars (Gentle Shepherd, Lavender Doll, Siloam Powder Pink, Aztec Gold, Rosie Meyers, Catherine Woodberry, Pink Charm, Virginia Henson, Lemon Yellow, Joan Senior, Along the Way, Border Baby, Bonanza, Pandora's Box, and Apricot Beauty). A consumer panel was conducted evaluating the taste preference of fifteen participants to an assortment of daylilies. Panelists were associated with Mississippi State Univ.. Each panelist received 15 different daylily blooms. The ranking methods and analysis of variance were used to determine the preference. The questionnaire for ranking given to each panelist stated to “Please taste each numbered sample and rank in order of preference with the first being most preferred and last being least preferred and to provide comments.” Among the 15 daylilies tested, Rosie Meyer was the most preferred, followed by a second group that consisted of Lavender Doll, Jones Senior, and Aztec Gold. The third most preferred group consisted of two, Gentle Shepherd and Along the Way. The preference for the remainder tapered off with the last two samples, Bonanza and Border Baby. These results suggest that of the 15 daylily varieties, Border Baby and Bonanza were statistically non-preferred with no daylily being statistically preferred.

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Victoriano Valpuesta, Nathan E. Lange and Michael S. Reid

Rapid senescence of day lily flowers (Hemerocallis sp. cv. Cradle Song) has been shown to be associated with a rapid disappearance of proteins. Senescence was significantly delayed by pulsing developing flowers with cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. A cDNA library prepared from mRNA extracted from flowers in the very early stages of senescence was probed with mRNA from flowers at different stages of opening and senescence. Characterization of senescence-specific clones, and implications for the control of senescence in this non-climacteric flower will be discussed.

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R.J. Griesbach and L. Batdorf

Various forms of Hemerocallis fulva differed in their relative anthocyanin: carotenoid ratios and the type of anthocyanin present. Hemerocallis fulva fm. fulva contained a single anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside) and two carotenoids (zeaxanthin and lutein). Hemerocallis fulva fm. rosea contained a single anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside) and traces of carotenoids. Hemerocallis fulva fm. disticha contained a single anthocyanin (delphinidin-3-rutinoside) and two carotenoids (zeaxanthin and lutein).

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Jeffrey Adelberg, Maria Delgado and Jeffrey Tomkins

; Adelberg et al., 2005 ; Albany et al., 2005 ). Daylilies ( Hemerocallis spp.) are one of the most popular perennial landscape plants in the United States and are among the most valuable commercially micropropagated plants. Hemerocallis spp . is

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Mélanie Leclerc, Claude D. Caldwell, Rajasekaran R. Lada and Jeffrey Norrie

Field experiments conducted in 2002 and 2003 evaluated the effects of timing of inflorescence removal on propagule formation, growth and development of Astilbe ×arendsii, Hemerocallis spp. and Hosta spp. Four timings of inflorescence removal were tested: 1) no removal (control), 2) removal at inflorescence emergence, 3) removal at preflower, and 4) Removal at full flower. Propagule formation in Astilbe was not enhanced by inflorescence removal. Hemerocallis plants with their inflorescences removed at emergence produced 25% more divisions than plants with their inflorescences removed at preflower. For Hosta, plants with inflorescences removed at pre- and full flower produced respectively 40% and 53% more divisions than control plants. These results have economic implications for commercial bare-root production, which need to be verified on a larger field scale.

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Mélanie Leclerc, Claude D. Caldwell, Rajasekaran R. Lada and Jeffrey Norrie

Field experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the effects of selected plant growth regulators on propagule production in Hemerocallis `Happy Returns' and Hosta `Gold Standard'. Benzyladenine (BA), chlormequat chloride (Cycocel), ethephon (Ethrel), prohexadione calcium (Apogee), and an experimental preparation of commercial seaweed extract (Acadian Seaplants Limited Liquid Seaweed Concentrate) amended with BA and IBA were tested at two times of application and three rates of application. Results with Hemerocallis showed that the application of the seaweed/PGR mixture at 3000 mg·L–1, Cycocel at 3000 mg·L–1 or BA at 2500 mg·L–1 applied at flowering, increased the number of plants producing two divisions compared to control plants. In Hosta, no increase in divisions under any treatments was observed.

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Nathan E. Lange, Michael S. Reid, Victoriano Valpuesta, Consuelo Guerrero and Miguel A. Botella

As in many commercially important flowers, especially the monocotyledonous geophytes, senescence of the ephemeral daylily flower (Hemerocallis) does not involve ethylene. By differentially screening a cDNA library constructed from mRNA extracted from daylily petals in the earliest stages of senescence, clones were isolated whose transcription is up-regulated coordinately with the onset of senescence. One of these clones, sen12, was found to be a transcription factor. The deduced amino acid sequence of sen12 contains a MADS-box and an associated K-box similar to transcription factors suggested to control floral morphogenesis in a variety of different species. Northern blot hybridization showed sen12 to be highly upregulated before and during visible flower senescence. The expression of homologous genes during senescence of other flowers will be reported.

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Patricia R. Knight*, Christine E. Coker, Benedict Posadas and John M. Anderson

The IR-4 program works to identify potential minor-use horticultural chemicals and evaluate them for phytotoxicity and efficacy. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate phytotoxicity and weed control of three unlabeled herbicides on field production of Hemerocallis spp. `Ming Toy'. Ten-cm pots of `Ming Toy' were planted into the field 16 July 2001. Each plot consisted of 3 plants per treatment with 6 replications in a completely random design. Each herbicide was analyzed as a separate experiment. Herbicide treatments consisted of clopyralid (0.14, 0.28, 0.56, or 1.1 kg·ha-1 a.i.), clethodim (125, 250, or 500 mL·L-1 a.i.), or bentazon (1.1, 2.2, or 4.4 kg·ha-1 a.i.). Data collected included weed number, percentage of weed coverage (% weed coverage), and phytotoxicity and foliar color ratings for `Ming Toy'. Clopyralid reduced total weed number 90 DAT although % weed coverage was similar or worse compared to the control treatment. Phytotoxicity 90 DAT was not significant for plants treated with clopyralid, but foliar color ratings were reduced. Application of clethodim to `Ming Toy' plots, regardless of rate, resulted in similar weed numbers compared to the control 49 DAT. Clethodim application, regardless of rate, reduced % weed coverage compared to the control treatment. Phytotoxicity 90 DAT was not significant, regardless of herbicide treatment, but foliar color ratings were lower for herbicide treated plants compared to the control. Bentazon, regardless of rate, reduced weed number and % weed coverage 49 DAT compared to the control. Phytotoxicity was similar to the control for plants treated with 1.1 kg·ha-1 a.i.

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A.N. Pollard, P.C. Coggins, C.E. Coker and P.R. Knight

There are over 30,000 named daylily cultivars in existence today. Ancient Chinese used the plant for nutritive and medicinal qualities. The Greek name Hemerocallis means beautiful for a day. Daylilies demonstrate potential in food service due to the range of color, fragrance, flavor, and textural varieties. The objective was to quantify by descriptive analysis the attribute descriptors for two edible daylily cultivars, i.e., `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink' and to provide data indicating optimum month for consumption of these two cultivars of daylilies. Blooms were harvested during early morning hours over 5 months (May to September). Six panelists were trained utilizing Quantitative Descriptive Analysis for 6 months on the sensory attributes of `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink' cultivars. Training consisted of determining attribute categories as well as intensity ratings for references. Attribute categories included appearance, odor/scent, handfelt texture, oral texture, basic taste(s), flavor, mouth feeling factors, and chew rate. Results showed attribute categories with descriptors for `Siloam Powder Pink' as odor/scent, flavor, mouth feeling factors, and oral texture as having a significant difference (P < 0.05) for the evaluation months. `Rosie Meyer' demonstrated significant differences (P < 0.05) for the evaluation months in attribute categories for appearance, odor/scent, flavor, oral texture, and mouth feeling factors. The optimum month for consumption of `Rosie Meyer' was September (P < 0.05); `Siloam Powder Pink' was July (P < 0.05). These results provide a descriptive language for daylily (Hemerocallis sp.) cultivars `Rosie Meyer' and `Siloam Powder Pink'. The optimum month for consumption to obtain the fullest range of desirable attributes will provide the food and horticultural industry with added information by which to market these cultivars.