( Hamamelis macrophylla ) and mexican witchhazel ( H . mexicana ), morphological and phylogenetic analyses support a monophyletic clade of witchhazels with six species ( Li et al., 2000 ). Witchhazels are large shrubs or small trees bearing characteristically
Lisa W. Alexander, Anthony L. Witcher and Fulya Baysal-Gurel
Charlotte R. Chan and Robert D. Marquard
Hamamelis cultivars are typically propagated by grafting onto H. virginiana rootstock. Grafting is labor-intensive and the understock frequently suckers which can lead to the loss of the scion. A cultivar growing on its own root system would eliminate this problem. Our research was undertaken to develop a successful method of rooting micropropagules. The source material was established cultures of H. × intermedia `Diane,' H. virginiana, and a H. vernalis selection. The rooting treatments consisted of four concentrations of K-IBA (0, 5, 10, and 20 μM) in 0.02% Tween 80. Three replicates of eight cuttings each were taken from the three sources for each of the four treatments. The cuttings were placed in 50-mL beakers, cut-end down, with 10 mL of the treatment solution. The beakers were sealed with Parafilm, and cuttings were soaked for 24 h. After treatment, the cuttings were randomly stuck into Kadon flats prepared in advance with a sterile mix of 1 peat: 1 perlite and were watered-in. Cuttings were misted, and flats were covered with plastic and Remay. They were kept in a warm (19-24 °C) greenhouse. Cuttings rooted in 3 to 4 weeks and were subsequently fertilized weekly with Peter's 20N-20P-20K at 150 ppm. At 12 weeks, data were collected for the rate of survival, height, branching, number of nodes, and root mass, and the plants were transplanted to quart pots. Ninety percent of the cuttings rooted; the most favorable response was with 10 μM K-IBA, although all treatments produced >80% rooting. This method was time and labor efficient. Moreover, micropropagation is not dependent on the season, and production of new plants could proceed on a continuous basis, making this a viable alternative to commercial grafting.
Lisa W. Alexander, Anthony Witcher and Michael A. Arnold
The genus Hamamelis L. (Hamamelidaceae R. Br., the witchhazel family) is represented by about six species distributed across the temperate regions of North America and Asia ( Wen and Shi, 1999 ; Leonard, 2006 ). Although as many as 15 species are
Robert D. Marquard, Eric P. Davis and Emily L. Stowe
Forty selections, including 37 cultivars of Hamamelis spp., were evaluated for genetic similarities using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Cluster analysis identified seven groups, which included three groups of H. ×intermedia cultivars, two groups of H. vernalis, and one group each of H. mollis and H. japonica. Three H. ×intermedia cultivars, `Arnold Promise', `Westerstede', and `Carmine Red', did not group closely with the other 20 cultivars of H. ×intermedia. Selections of the North American species H. vernalis were quite distinct from the Asiatic selections. However, data are presented that suggest hybridization exist between Asiatic Hamamelis spp. and H. vernalis. Genetic similarities between known half-sib families provides evidence that the cultivar pairs `Arnold Promise'—`Winter Beauty' and `Carmine Red'—`Hiltingbury' are, themselves, not likely half-sibs.
Anna Perkins Nina Bassuk
Budbreak inhibition and poor overwinter survival (OS) limit successful cutting propagation of Acer rubrum October Glory, A. rubrum Red Sunset, Hamamelis vernalis, H. virginiana and Stewartia pseudocamellia. Localized blanching (banding) of the cutting on the stock plant; a range of 3 IBA concentrations, and foliar spray application of: 1% silver thiosulfate(STS), STS followed ten days later by Gibberellin, GA4/7:250ppm(STS GA),50ppm thidiazuron (TDZ) and TDZ followed by GA4/7 (TDZ GA)were tested for increasing growth and overwinter survival.. Carbohydrates were analyzed in cuttings which did and didn't grow. A. rubrum October Glory*, and Hamamelis spp all had increased OS for cuttings which grew. A. rubrum Red Sunset demonstrated a similar trend. Hamamelis spp. had significant increase in carbohydrates for cuttings which grew. A. rubrum October Glory' exhibited the same trend. S. pseudocamellia did not have increased OS with growth. and showed no increases in carbohydrates with growth, but the cuttings that didn't grow had at least 93 % more carbohydrates than the other species analyzed. All species had higher OS when stored in the 3° C cooler, than in the fluctuating cold frame. Banding increased growth of A. rubrum October Glory, and H. virginiana. IBA concentration affected growth of all species. STS increased growth of H. virginiana and S. pseudocamellia. GA4/7 increased growth of all cuttings except A. rubrum October Glory.
Margaret R. Pooler and Ruth L. Dix
Interspecific hybridizations among members of the genus Hamamelis (the witchhazels) and Corylopsis were carried out in 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996 at the U.S. National Arboretum. Specifically, crosses involving the native witchhazel (H. vernalis and H. virginiana) and the Asian taxa (H. mollis, H. japonica, and H. × intermedia) were attempted in order to combine the ornamental qualities of the Asian species with the adaptability and fall blooming characteristics of the native species. Additionally, C. platypetala, a hardy species with small inflorescences, was crossed with C. himalaica, which has large showy inflorescences but is less hardy. Approximately 50 seedlings resulting from these crosses have been analyzed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to verify interspecific hybridization. Based on these assays, we report the first incidence of controlled interspecific hybridization between the Asian and native witchhazel taxa.
Robert D. Marquard, Charlotte R. Chan, Eric P. Davis and Emily L. Stowe
Numerous isozyme systems were found to be polymorphic in witch hazel (Hamamelis spp.). However, aconitase (ACO), malate dehydrogenase, phospho-glucose isomerase (PGI), and phosphoglucomutase were most useful for identification of cultivars. From these enzyme systems, three genes were identified that control patterns of ACO (2) and PGI (1). Isozymes can be used to help verify cultivars and their simple inheritance could be useful to validate hybrids and gene flow between plants. DNA was readily extracted from young leaf tissue after grinding in liquid nitrogen and extraction in warm CTAB. DNA was amenable to amplification using polymerase chain-reaction technology. Primers (400) were screened to identify polymorphic RAPD bands. Ultimately, 19 primers were used to generate 68 RAPD markers that were reproducible. Cultivars were scored for presence or absence of the 68 markers. Genetic similarities were calculated using a Nei coefficient and clustering was conducted for more than 40 cultivars using a UPGMA program. Arbitrarily, the cultivars were assigned to seven groupings after cluster analysis. The seven classes gave one group each of H. japonica and mollis; two groups of H. vernalis; and three groups of H. ×intermedia. Clustering allowed some interpretation about relatedness among cultivars and genetic similarity data helped assign some cultivars to a particular taxa that were previously in question.
Charlotte R. Chan and Robert D. Marquard
The Holden Arboretum, established in 1931, is the largest arboretum in the United States. Its mission is to promote the knowledge and appreciation of plants for personal enjoyment, inspiration, and recreation; for scientific research; and for educational and aesthetic purposes. Of the Arboretum's 3100 acres, 800 acres support collections and display gardens, while the balance comprise natural areas. The collections include nearly 8,000 accessions from 76 plant families; about 700 plant species, some rare or endangered, occupy the natural areas. The education component of the mission connects the Arboretum with the public through school programs, classes, horticultural therapy, and seasonal internships. Two research fellowships are also available. The Holden Arboretum has expanded the research emphasis. The David G. Leach Research Station, part of the Arboretum since 1986, focuses on rhododendron and magnolia breeding and research. Built in 1993, the Horticulture Science Center is a modern research and production facility able to more fully implement and support a broad range of formal horticultural research. The main objective of the research program is to develop superior woody ornamentals for the landscape through hybridization. Additional research emphasizes reproductive biology and using biochemical markers (isozymes and RAPDs) to answer basic questions about the genera under study (Aesculus, Hamamelis, Cercis).
A.M. Shirazi and M.V. Thierry
It is not well known how cold-hardy new buds and emerging leaves or flowers are during spring. Extreme temperature fluctuations that sometimes bring early frost in spring (April–May) are very common in northern latitudes and cause severe damage to emerging leaves and flowers. Even though most woody plants can tolerate frost in spring, others show early tissue damage and can fully recover. There are some trees, e.g., Japanese maples (Acer palmatum) that when leaves are damaged due to spring frost, the results include severe dieback and eventual death. We tested new flowers and leaves of four crabapples: Malus ×micromalus, M. sargentii, `Mary Potter', and M. hupehensis, after budbreak for 3 years using electrical conductivity (EC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in spring: May 1997, Apr. 1998, and Apr. 2000, at The Morton Arboretum. Both flowers and leaves can tolerate from –6 to –12 °C and we observed higher ion leakage in leaves than flowers. The high temperature exotherm (HTE) of flowers were –8 to –10 °C in April. In a companion study, testing other species that had premature budbreak due to “near lethal” (sublethal) freezing stress in Jan. 2001, the following HTE were observed: Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) flower (about –7.5 °C), Spindle trees leaves (about –6 °C), Judd's viburnum (Viburnum ×juddii) (about –8 °C), Brevipetala witch-hazel (Hamamelis mollis`Brevipetala') flower (about –5 °C), redbud (Cercis candensis) flower (about –9 °C), flowering quince (Chaenomeles ×superba) flower (–8 °C). Multiple LTE at –13, –18, –22, and –27 °C were observed for Judd's viburnum. This information could be useful for selection and breeding of woody plants.
Ajay Nair and Donglin Zhang
, 1974 ), sugar maple ( Donnelly and Yawney, 1972 ), witchhazel [ Hamamelis spp. ( Dirr and Richards, 1989 )], and oak [ Quercus spp. ( Drew et al., 1993 )]. For mountain camellia, cuttings taken early in the season (softwood cuttings) are an excellent