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David J. Norman, Qi Huang, Jeanne M.F. Yuen, Arianna Mangravita-Novo and Drew Byrne

Geraniums ( Pelargonium spp.) have been cultivated for more than 350 years and over 200 species have been grown during this time period ( Miller, 2002 ). Hybridization and selections have transformed this potted flowering crop into one of the

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Matthew D. Taylor, Paul V. Nelson and Jonathan M. Frantz

During the 1980s, many geranium producers observed a sporadic, unexplained decline in substrate pH. During the same time period, they also reported the occurrence of toxic concentrations of Fe or Mn in leaf tissue ( Bachman and Miller, 1995 ). In

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Harry K. Tayama and Stephen A. Carver

Ulery Greenhouse Co., Springfield, Ohio, and West Hills Greenhouse, Cincinnati, for donation of zonal geraniums; Yoder Brothers, Barberton, Ohio, for donation of chrysanthemum cuttings; Grace Sierra and Co., Fogelsville, Pa., for donation of Metro

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Matthew D. Taylor, Paul V. Nelson and Jonathan M. Frantz

substrate ( Hinsinger, 2001 ; Schjorring, 1986 ). Taylor et al. (2008) reported that low tissue P and high temperature stress caused geraniums to lower substrate pH. In addition to low P and high temperature, high light may also be associated with SPD

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Harry K. Tayama and Stephen A. Carver

acknowledge the Ulery Greenhouse Co. for the donation of the zonal geraniums and W.R. Grace Co. for the donation of the Metro Mix 350. Trade names are used in this publication to provide specific information. Mention of a trade name does not constitute a

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Rose Palumbo, Wai-Foong Hong, Guo-Liang Wang, Jinguo Hu, Richard Craig, James Locke, Charles Krause and David Tay

that have potential use in agriculture and medicine. For example, the essential oils that scented geraniums ( Pelargonium sp.) produce have been used as perfumes and food flavoring ( Becker and Brawner, 1996 ; Ravindra et al., 2004 ), and their

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Christopher J. Currey, Roberto G. Lopez, Vijay K. Rapaka, James E. Faust and Erik S. Runkle

Potted flowering geraniums are one of the most popular floriculture crops worldwide. In the United States, geraniums had a wholesale value of ≈$116 million dollars for the top 15 producing states in 2011 ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2012

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Michelle L. Jones, Eun-Sun Kim and Steven E. Newman

1 Assistant Professor. 2 Graduate Student. 3 Associate Professor. We would like to thank Dan Busch of Busch Greenhouses in Denver, Colo., for supplying us with rooted geranium cuttings. This research was funded in part by the Colorado

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Johanna Del Castillo Múnera and Mary K. Hausbeck

leads the nation in sales for nine floriculture crops, including geranium, with an estimated wholesale value of $375.74 million ( USDA, 2013 ). Pythium spp. infect greenhouse-grown crops and negatively affect the floriculture industry ( Garzón et al

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James C. Locke, James E. Altland and Deanna M. Bobak

recovery period for soybean ( Glycine max L.), ending shoot weight values were still only 50% of non-stressed plants ( Tolley-Henry and Raper, 1986 ). In commercial greenhouse production, seedling crops such as geranium follow rigid schedules for plug