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Samuel Salazar-García and Carol J. Lovatt

Botany at the Univ. of California. S. S-G. acknowledges the financial support of CONACYT, INIFAP and SNI of Mexico and the University of California, Riverside. We thank Charlie W. Coggins, Jr., for his advice on the selection of GA 3 concentrations and

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Nobutaka Shiraiwa, Kaori Kikuchi, Ichiro Honda, Masayoshi Shigyo, Hiroko Yamazaki, Daisuke Tanaka, Kenji Tanabe, and Akihiro Itai

physiological processes during plant growth, one of the most characteristic of which is shoot elongation ( Davies, 2004 ). It was previously reported that GA-defective and non-responding plants show a dwarf phenotype ( Hooley, 1994 ; Swain and Olszewski, 1996

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Lisa L. Baxter and Brian M. Schwartz

The Beginning of a Legacy In 1946, Glen Burton and the USDA-ARS initiated a turfgrass breeding program in Tifton, GA to develop better bermudagrasses to replace sand putting greens or seeded varieties ( Burton, 1991 ). Researchers scouted golf

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Willem J. Steyn, Samuel F. Ungerer, and Karen I. Theron

’ mandarin ( Talon et al., 1992 ), apple ( Bangerth and Schröder, 1994 ), and pear ( Deckers and Schoofs, 2002 ). Application of GA 3 during or shortly after anthesis increases parthenocarpic fruit set in various persimmon cultivars ( George et al., 1997

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Steven McArtney, Duane Greene, Terence Robinson, and James Wargo

temperatures at the full bloom stage, when air temperatures of 28 and 25 °F are predicted to kill 10% and 90% of the blooms, respectively ( Ballard et al., 1998 ). Foliar gibberellin (GA) sprays during bloom increase fruit set in pear ( Pyrus communis ) by

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Yan-Ling Zheng and Wei-Bang Sun

germination by promoting the mobilization of stored food reserves ( Adkins et al., 2002 ). Although more than 100 members of GAs are now known, GA 3 , GA 4 , and GA 7 are most frequently used exogenously to break seed dormancy. CTKs usually display low

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Leo G. Albrigo and Ed W. Stover

fruit on the tree ( Ali-Dinar et al., 1976 ; Ferguson et al., 1982 ). Thus, auxins and other plant hormones such as GA affect citrus physiology and the effects of endogenous plant hormones can be mimicked by PGRs. Measurement of ethylene levels in

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Brent L. Black and Mark K. Ehlenfeldt

applications of a plant growth regulator would provide a low-labor, low-cost method to suppress flowering. Foliar applications of commercially formulated gibberellin (GA 3 ) are now a common industry practice in tart cherry production to prevent precocious

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Samuel Salazar-García, Luis E. Cossio-Vargas, Isidro J.L. González-Durán, and Carol J. Lovatt

growth and development and might prove useful as tools to achieve these goals. Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) is the PBR that is most frequently reported to successfully alter the date and intensity of flowering in fruit trees. GA 3 application to mango

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Duane W. Greene

GA4+7 and GA4 substantially reduced russeting of `Golden Delicious' in four different years. There were indications that GA4 was more effective than GA4+7 at reducing russeting. The influence of gibberellins on flowering was variable and not always related to crop load. GA4 increased flowering in one experiment, had no influence in two experiments, and inhibited flowering in two experiments. GA7 either inhibited flowering or had no effect. There were indications that GA4 may partially reverse the inhibitory effect of GA7 on flowering in some instances.