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John E. Erwin, Royal D. Heins, and Roar Moe

Fuchsia × hybrids `Dollar Princess' plants were grown under 35 day/night temperature (DT/NT) environments ranging from 10 to 30C over 2 years. Plants were grown under short days (SD) (9-hour 15-minute photoperiod) or long days (LD) (9-hour 15-minute photoperiod plus a 4-hour night interruption) within each environment. The influence of temperature on Fuchsia stem elongation and leaf expansion was best described by the relationship or difference (DIF) between DT and NT (DT - NT) rather than actual DT and NT between 10 and 25C. Both internode length and leaf area increased linearly as DIF increased from - 15 to + 15C with DT and NT between 10 and 25C. Internode length increased 0.129 and 0.071 cm/1C increase in DIF for LD- and SD-grown plants, respectively. Individual leaf area increased 0.52 and 0.40 cm2/1C increase in DIF for LD- and SD-grown plants, respectively. DT or NT above 24C reduced stem elongation and leaf expansion, regardless of DIF. The response of stem elongation and leaf expansion to DIF was greater on a percent basis when plants were grown under SD and LD, respectively. On an absolute basis, both internode length and leaf area were greater on LD-grown plants. Branching increased as average daily temperature decreased from 25 to 12C. Photoperiod did not affect branching.

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C.M. Roberts, G.W. Eaton, and F.M. Seywerd

Paclobutrazol treatments of 0, 0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 mg/plant improved the form of Tibouchina urvilleana (DC.) standards and eliminated the need for pruning during the display season. Paclobutrazol did not improve the form of Fuchsia × hybrida Hort. ex Vllm. Paclobutrazol inhibited trunk caliper development in both species. Paclobutrazol at 0.125 mg/plant slightly increased Tibouchina flower size. Chlormequat at 0, 1000, or 2000 mg/plant did not hasten flowering of Tibouchina. Chemical names used: ß-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α- (1,1-dimethylethyl) -1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); α-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanammonium chloride (chlormequat).

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William R. Graves and Hongyi Zhang

Air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) effects on relative water content (RWC), rooting percentage, root count, and root mass of unmisted, subirrigated stem cuttings of two taxa were determined. Leaf RWC of `Charm' chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] decreased until roots initiated and then increased, was lower for cuttings at 23 °C photoperiod/14 °C dark than for cuttings at 31 °C photoperiod/22 °C dark, and was lower at 193 than at 69 μmol·m–2·s–1 PAR. Neither temperature nor PAR affected leaf RWC of `Dollar Princess' fuchsia (Fuchsia ×hybrida Hort. ex Vilm.), which increased linearly before and after root initiation. Rooting percentage and root count were higher with photoperiods at 31 °C than at 23 °C for chrysanthemum after 7 days and for fuchsia after 10 days. Although all cuttings of both taxa had rooted after 14 days, root dry mass was higher with photoperiods at 31 °C than at 23 °C regardless of PAR for fuchsia and at 69 μmol·m–2·s–1 PAR for chrysanthemum. Propagators wishing to use subirrigation instead of mist, fog, or enclosure can minimize the decline in leaf RWC before root initiation and increase the number and dry mass of roots of chrysanthemum by using 69 μmol·m–2·s–1 PAR and a 31 °C photoperiod/22 °C dark cycle. Root dry mass of fuchsia also can be increased by the use of high temperature, but differences in rooting were independent of changes in leaf RWC.

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Gonzalo H. Villarino and Neil S. Mattson

The use of saline irrigation water may be inevitable in the future since the freshwater supply is decreasing over time. In some regions of the United States, producers of both ornamental and agronomic crops are already facing a limited supply of high-quality water. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the salt tolerance of commonly used greenhouse bedding plants to minimize potential salt damage before use of nonpotable water sources is mandated. Research screening several bedding plants has not taken place for more than two decades. Therefore, we undertook experiments to screen popular bedding plants for salt tolerance during greenhouse production. Transplants were exposed to 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, or 80 mm sodium chloride (NaCl) in the irrigation water for 5 weeks resulting in average substrate pour-thru electrical conductivity (EC) values of 4.0 (control), 7.0, 9.8, 12.1, or 14.2 dS·m−1, respectively. Pansy (Viola tricolor) and zinnia (Zinnia angustifolia), the most sensitive species examined, exhibited 100% mortality when exposed to an EC of 14.2 dS·m−1. The least affected species for dry weight (DW) was snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) with a 54% reduction as EC increased from 4.0 to 14.2 dS·m−1. Only fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida) and snapdragon were unaffected by an EC of 7.0 dS·m−1, whereas at 9.8 dS·m−1 all of the species had a significantly reduced DW as compared with control plants. Verbena (Verbena ×hybrida), petunia (Petunia ×hybrida), coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides), and begonia (Begonia hiemalis) were the only species that did not undergo a significant height reduction in comparing 9.8 dS·m−1 to control. A classification of the 14 species is created here on the basis of plant DW to provide guidance as to which species could be irrigated with more saline water while not compromising plant growth and quality.

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Neil S. Mattson and W. Roland Leatherwood

demonstrated reduced flower diameters. Flower diameter differences between treatments were relatively modest (±1% to 5%) with the exception of fuchsia ( Fuchsia hybrida hort. ex Siebold & Voss ‘Marinka’), which exhibited a 12% increase in flower diameter with

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Janni Bjerregaard Lund, Theo J. Blom, and Jesper Mazanti Aaslyng

. Whitelam, G.C. 1990 Phytochrome, a family of photoreceptors with multiple physiological roles Plant Cell Environ. 13 695 707 Vince-Prue, D. 1977 Photocontrol of stem elongation in light-grown plants of Fuchsia

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James E. Faust, Pamela C. Korczynski, and Uttara C. Samarakoon

interception by hanging baskets. There is considerable variation in the desirable market size for different species. For example, fuchsia ( Fuchsia × hybrida ) and boston fern ( Nephrolepis exaltata ) baskets may be 2 to 3 ft diameter, while a geranium basket

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Tasneem M. Vaid, Erik S. Runkle, and Jonathan M. Frantz

on Fuchsia × hybrida morphology J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 116 955 960 Fausey, B.A. Heins, R.D. Cameron, A.C. 2005 Daily light integral affects flowering and quality of greenhouse-grown Achillea, Gaura , and Lavandula HortScience 40 114 118

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Matthew G. Blanchard and Erik S. Runkle

al., 2000 ; Summerfield et al., 1991 ). Our results are in agreement with those of Mortensen and Moe (1992) , who reported no difference in flowering time of fuchsia ( Fuchsia × hybrida hort. ex Sieb. and Voss), geranium, impatiens ( Impatiens

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W. Garrett Owen, Qingwu Meng, and Roberto G. Lopez

elongation is a shade-avoidance response observed under a low R-to-FR ratio ( Fraser et al., 2016 ). Reducing the R-to-FR ratio from 147 to 0.66 promoted extension growth of three petunia cultivars and fuchsia ( Fuchsia hybrida hort. Ex Siebold & Voss