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Sumonthip Bunnag, Ramon Dolcet-Sanjuan, David W.S. Mok, and Machteld C. Mok

Somaclonal quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) variants IE-1 and IE-2 (Dolcet-Sanjuan et al., 1992) were more tolerant to Fe-deficient conditions in vitro than the original clone Quince A. The tolerance was evidenced by higher chlorophyll concentrations in leaves, higher Fe(III) reduction in roots, and increased acidification of the medium. In Summers 1993 and 1994, the two variants and Quince A were compared in the greenhouse, grown in normal potting soil (pH 5) and in soil obtained from an Fe-deficient orchard, with and without the addition of lime and KHCO3 solution to increase the pH (up to pH 8.3) and intensify Fe stress. In both years, the variants had significantly higher leaf chlorophyll concentrations than Quince A when grown in high-pH soils. The Fe+2 concentrations in leaves were also higher in the variants. Under field conditions at IRTA Reus, Spain, IE-1 and IE-2 had higher chlorophyll concentrations than the controls at some, but not all, analysis dates. These results suggest that IE-1 and IE-2, when grown as young plants in the greenhouse, have higher tolerance to Fe deficiency than Quince A, as observed in vitro, but that the tolerance is more variable under uncontrolled conditions in the field.

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Creighton L. Gupton and James M. Spiers

An experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications of two cultivars × six pH levels × four Zn levels was conducted to determine if Zn caused leaf chlorosis in rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei Reade cv. Climax) and southern highbush (mostly V. corymbosum L. cv. Bladen) blueberry. `Bladen' accumulated more foliar Mn and Zn than `Climax', but Fe concentration was similar in the two cultivars. Leaf chlorosis ratings were similar for the two cultivars. Solution pH had no significant effect on Mn, Zn, or Fe leaf concentration or degree of chlorosis. Zinc level in the nutrient solution affected leaf concentration of Mn and Zn but not of Fe. A significant linear increase in chlorosis resulted from increasing Zn solution concentration from 30 to 120 mg·L–1. We conclude that high levels of Zn may induce leaf chlorosis in rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry.

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Sergio Jiménez, Jorge Pinochet, Anunciación Abadía, María Ángeles Moreno, and Yolanda Gogorcena

orchard management costs ( Abadía et al., 2004 ; Sanz et al., 1992 ). The use of Fe chlorosis-tolerant genotypes as rootstocks represents a reliable solution to prevent iron chlorosis ( Socias i Company et al., 1995 ; Tagliavini and Rombolà, 2001

Open access

Ewell Rogers

Abstract

Sodium ferric ethylene di (o-hydroxyphenylacetate) (FeEDDHA) increased Fe and reduced Mn concentration in leaves of ‘Fay Elberta’, ‘Shippers Late Red’ and ‘Redhaven'peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) and reduced Fe chlorosis and depressed the leaf Mn:Fe ratio. FeEDDHA increased Fe and reduced leaf Mn more than did equivalent amounts of sodium ferric ethylene bis (α-amino-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenylacetate) (NaFe) and hydrogen ferric ethylene bis (α-amino-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenylacetate) (HFe). FeEDDHA at 14 g of Fe per tree increased size and yield of ‘Redhaven'peaches. NaFe increased Fe and reduced Mn of the leaves and decreased Fe chlorosis of ‘Fay Elberta’ and ‘Shippers Late Red’ trees. HFe increased Fe and reduced Mn of the leaves and decreased Fe chlorosis of ‘Redhaven’ and ‘Fay Elberta’ trees. The treatments had no discernible effects on Zn concentration of the leaves or on shoot growth.

Open access

Ewell Rogers

Abstract

Sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxphenylacetate) at 113.4 g per tree depressed the concn of Mn, Zn, P, K, and N in ‘July Elberta’ peach leaves and reduced Fe chlorosis. At 226.8 g, the chelate increased the concn of Fe; depressed the concn of Mn, Zn, and K; and reduced Fe chlorosis in the leaves. The Mn-Fe ratio remained essentially the same in the leaves as the season progressed where no fertilizer was applied; whereas, the 226.8 g rate of FeNa2-EDDHA reduced the ratio. There were no discernable treatment effects on trunk and shoot growth.

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William S. Castle, James Nunnallee, and John A. Manthey

-induced Fe chlorosis responses of plants grown in soil under field conditions. However, plant responses were not always consistent and may be an expression of one or more tolerance mechanisms. It is also critical to be aware that some important aspects of Fe

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Sudahono, D.H. Byrne, and R.E. Rouse

Eighteen citrus rootstock seedling lines were tested for their tolerance to Fe chlorosis using sand culture. Potassium carbonate was used to induce Fe-deficiency chlorosis. Chlorosis was quantified by 1) visual ratings, 2) SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter readings, 3) leaf chlorophyll concentration, 4) leaf active Fe, and 5) leaf total Fe. The first four criteria were well correlated among each other but not with leaf total Fe. Although any of the first four measurements could be used to quantify chlorosis, visual ratings and SPAD-502 readings were more convenient. The rootstock that have been reported to be tolerant or very susceptible to Fe chlorosis in calcareous soils were rated similarly for tolerance to bicarbonate-induced Fe chlorosis. Nontrifoliate types such as Texas sour orange (C. aurantium L.), Cleopatra mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), Vangasay lemon (C. limon Burro.), and Ridge pineapple x Milam 1578-201 (C. sinensis L. Osbeck x C. jambhiri) were tolerant to moderately tolerant. Although most of the trifoliate hybrids tested were moderately susceptible to very susceptible, Smooth Seville x Argentine trifoliate {[C. grands (L.) Osbeck x C. aurantium] x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.} and F-81-12 citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata) exhibited relatively high tolerance to lime-induced Fe chlorosis.

Open access

Ewell Rogers

Abstract

Sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetate) containing 6% metallic Fe (FeEDDHA) and hydrogen ferric ethylene bis (a-amino-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenylacetate) containing 6% metallic Fe (157HFe) increased Fe and decreased Mn concentration in leaves of ‘Redhaven’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Both chelates reduced Fe chlorosis, depressed leaf N concentration, and increased fruit size. FeEDDHA at 227 g per tree increased fruit yield. The two chelates reduced the leaf Mn:Fe ratio. There was no discernible treatment effect on P, K, or Zn concentration in the peach leaves or on trunk and shoot growth.

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Timothy K. Broschat and Monica L. Elliott

Foxtail palms (Wodyetia bifurcata Irvine) were grown in 6.2-L containers using a 3 calcitic limestone gravel: 2 coir dust (by volume) substrate to induce Fe chlorosis. Plants were treated initially and 2 and 4 months later with soil applications of FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, FeEDTA+FeHEDTA on vermiculite, FeEDTA+FeDTPA on clay, ferric citrate, ferrous ammonium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferrous sulfate+sulfur, or iron glucoheptonate at a rate of 0.2 g Fe/container. Similar plants were treated initially and 2 and 4 months later with foliar sprays of FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, ferric citrate, ferrous sulfate, or iron glucoheptonate at a rate of 0.8 g Fe/L. After 6 months, palms receiving soil applications of FeEDDHA, FeEDTA+FeHEDTA on vermiculite, FeDTPA, or FeEDTA+FeDTPA on clay had significantly less chlorosis than plants receiving other soil-applied Fe fertilizers or untreated control plants. Palms treated with foliar Fe fertilizers had chlorosis ratings similar to untreated control plants. Palms with the most severe Fe chlorosis also had the highest levels of leaf spot disease caused by Exserohilum rostratum (Drechs.) K.J. Leonard & E.G. Suggs. Neither chlorosis severity nor leaf spot severity was correlated with total leaf Fe concentration.

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Creighton L. Gupton and James M. Spiers

A study of leaf chlorosis in rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) grown in soil containing 300 to 400 ppm diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extracted Mn revealed no relationship between leaf Mn content and chlorosis. A second study was conducted to estimate heritability of the content of Mn, Fe, and certain other mineral elements that have been associated with leaf chlorosis and to determine the genetic relationships among shoot dry weight, visual rating, and the mineral elements in rabbiteye blueberry. Heritability estimates were high for all variables except Fe, suggesting that changes in Mn, Zn, Ca, Mg, or K contents could be expected from phenotypic recurrent selection. However, manipulation of mineral content probably would not ameliorate the Fe chlorosis. The high heritability of shoot dry weight and visual rating and the high genetic correlation between these variables suggest that plants resistant to mineral effects on Fe metabolism can be selected on the basis of visual rating.