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J. Scott McElroy, James D. McCurdy and Michael L. Flessner

Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of sulfometuron in centipedegrass ( Eremochloa ophiuroides ) and bahiagrass ( Paspalum notatum ) Weed Sci. 37 42 46 Beam, J.B. Barker, W.L. Askew, S.D. 2006 Selective creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera

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Edward Bush, Paul Wilson and Gloria McClure

A study to determine the influence of light duration on seed germination was performed in a temperature-controlled growth chamber. Light treatments consisted of 0 (control), 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 h of light exposure. Cool fluorescent light bulbs provided 19 μMol·m-2·s-1 light. Fifty seeds of each treatment were placed into separately labeled 6.0-cm-diameter petri dishes lined with Whatman #42 filter papers moistened with 2 mL of distilled water. Seed of both species germinated poorly in the control treatment. Mean time of germination (MTG) and germination percentage increased for both species when seeds were exposed to light. Pre-soaking seed in gibberellic acid (GA) significantly improved germination percentages of both species compared to the untreated control. Centipedegrass germination percentage and MTG also increased with light exposure. Carpetgrass seed germination was not enhanced by GA treatments with light exposure. The results of this experiment suggests that, if seed are covered too deeply, excluding light, MTG and percentage germination will be reduced. However, pre-soaking seed in a GA solution can improve dark germination by as much as 50% for both grass species.

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S.K. Braman, R.R. Duncan and M.C. Engelke

Turfgrass selections including 21 paspalums (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) and 12 zoysiagrasses (Zoysia sp.) were compared with susceptible `KY31' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and more resistant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.) and common centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack] for potential resistance to fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)], an occasionally serious pest of managed turf. Turfgrass and pasture grasses annually suffer sporadic damage by this pest, often severe in the Gulf Coast states. Resistant grasses offer an alternative management tool for the fall armyworm, reducing the need for pesticide use. Laboratory evaluations assessed the degree of antibiosis and nonpreference present among more than 30 turfgrass genotypes to first and third instar fall armyworms, respectively. Zoysiagrasses exhibiting high levels of antibiosis included `Cavalier', `Emerald', DALZ8501, DALZ8508, `Royal', and `Palisades'. Paspalum selections demonstrating reduced larval or pupal weights or prolonged development times of fall armyworm included 561-79, Temple-2, PI-509021, and PI-509022.

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Aaron J. Patton, Jon M. Trappe and Michael D. Richardson

Covers, mulches, and erosion-control blankets are often used to establish turf. There are reports of various effects of seed cover technology on the germination and establishment of warm-season grasses. The objective of this study was to determine how diverse cover technologies influence the establishment of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) from seed. Plots were seeded in June 2007 or July 2008 with the various turfgrass species and covered with cover technologies, including Curlex, Deluxe, and Futerra products, jute, Poly Jute, polypropylene, straw, straw blanket, Thermal blanket, and the control. Establishment was reduced in straw- and polyethylene-covered plots due to decreased photosythentically active radiation penetration or excessive temperature build-up, respectively. Overall, Deluxe and Futerra products, jute, and Poly Jute allowed for the highest establishment of these seeded warm-season grasses.

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Joe E. Toler, Jason K. Higingbottom and Lambert B. McCarty

Centipedegrass [ Eremochloa ophiuroides ] is a popular turfgrass grown in the southeastern United States from North Carolina to Florida and along the Gulf Coast to Texas, yet limited published research is available on “best” cultural practices for

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Michael L. Parker and John R. Meyer

Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. `Biscoe'/Lovell) trees were grown in a sandy loam soil under six orchard floor management systems, including five vegetative covers (continuous under the tree) and a vegetation-free control (bare ground). At the end of the fifth year, trees grown in bare ground and nimblewill grass (Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel.) had a significantly larger trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) than trees grown in weedy plots, centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.], or bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge). Trees grown in brome (Bromus mollis L.) did not differ significantly in TCSA from any other treatment. Soil profile excavations of the root system revealed that trees grown in bare ground or with nimblewill had significantly higher root densities than those in the weedy plots or grown with bahiagrass. Vector analysis of root distribution indicated that trees grown in bare ground or nimblewill rooted deeper than trees in all other treatments. The greatest reduction in deep rooting occurred with bahiagrass.

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Edward W. Bush, Paul Wilson, Dennis P. Shepard and Gloria McClure

Priming or presoaking seed of common carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis Chase) and centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro. (Kunz)] increased germination percentage and decreased mean time of germination (MTG) at 20, 25, and 30 °C. The effect of presoaking and priming was dependent on grass species and temperature. The optimum seed germination temperature for both of these warm-season species was 30 °C. Maximum effect on common carpetgrass or centipedegrass seeds was achieved by priming in 2% KNO3; higher concentrations did not improve germination percentage or MTG, and 4% was in some cases detrimental. Germination was higher and MTG lower at 20 and 30 °C than at 15 °C. Presoaking common carpetgrass and centipedegrass seeds was the most efficient seed enhancement treatment for germination at 30 °C.

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R.L. Green, J.B. Beard and M.J. Oprisko

Root hairs contributed variously to total root length, ranging from a low of 1% for `Emerald' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud. x Z. tenuifolia Willd. ex Trin) and 5% for `Georgia Common' centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack], to a high of 95% and 89% for `Texturf 10' and `FB 119' bermudagrasses [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], respectively. Genotypes ranking highest for root lengths with root hairs also ranked highest for root lengths without root hairs and for number of main roots per plant. In terms of root lengths with root hairs, first-order lateral roots contributed more to total root length than root lengths of either main roots or second-order lateral roots for all nine genotypes. Number and length of root hairs arising from either main or lateral roots were not significantly affected by their relative distance from the cap of the main root. `Texturf 10' and `FB 119' bermudagrasses ranked highest for root and root-hair extent.

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R.L. Qu, D. Li, R. Du and R. Qu

Turfgrass, which is widely grown and produces a large amount of biomass, could act as a sink for industrial pollutants in urban and suburban regions. Little research has been conducted regarding heavy metal uptake by turfgrasses. The objective of this study was to evaluate root uptake of lead (Pb) in four turfgrass species. Grasses were grown hydroponically in solutions containing from 0 to 450 mg·L-1 Pb, at either pH 4.5 or 5.5, for 4 or 8 days. A significant quadratic relation existed between Pb accumulation in roots and solution Pb concentration within the tested range. The maximum Pb accumulation in roots of the four species was in the range of 20 mg·g-1 dry root weight. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Spartina patens survived at 450 mg·L-1 Pb solution without showing obvious damage while centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] and buffalograss [Buchlöe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] deteriorated or died at this concentration. This study showed that turfgrass plants can absorb heavy metals efficiently and tolerate high Pb concentration in hydroponic solutions and thus may have a potential use in environmental remediation as a biological extractor of lead.

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K.L. Hensler, B.S. Baldwin and J.M. Goatley Jr.

A bioorganic fiber seeding mat was compared to traditional seeding into a prepared soil to ascertain any advantages or disadvantages in turfgrass establishment between the planting methods. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) were seeded at recommended levels in May 1995 and July 1996. The seeding methods were evaluated under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Plots were periodically rated for percent turf coverage; weed counts were taken about 4 weeks after study initiation. Percent coverage ratings for all grasses tended to be higher for direct-seeded plots under irrigated conditions in both years. Bermudagrass and bahiagrass established rapidly for both planting methods under either irrigated or nonirrigated conditions. Only carpetgrass and zoysiagrass tended to have greater coverage ratings in nonirrigated, mat-seeded plots in both years, although the percent plot coverage ratings never reached the minimum desired level of 80%. In both years, weed counts in mat-seeded plots were lower than in direct-seeded plots. A bioorganic fiber seeding mat is a viable method of establishing warm-season turfgrasses, with its biggest advantage being a reduction in weed population as compared to direct seeding into a prepared soil.