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Grete Grindal Patil, Vibeke Alm, Roar Moe, and Olavi Junttila

The role of phytochrome in control of stem elongation by daily temperature alternations is unclear. The aim of this work was to study the involvement of phytochrome B in thermoperiodism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and the interaction with gibberellin (GA). The wild type and the phytochrome B deficient, long-hypocotyl (lh) cucumber mutant were grown under alternating day (DT) and night temperature (NT) and either with or without an exposure to end-of-day far-red light (EOD-FR). Without EOD-FR, hypocotyl and internodes of the wild type plants were shorter under a low DT (19 °C)/high NT (25 °C) (negative DIF) compared with a high DT/low NT regime (positive DIF), while the number of leaves was reduced by 12%. EOD-FR enhanced elongation of hypocotyl and internodes. However, EOD-FR reduced the effect of alternating temperature on hypocotyl elongation. The lh cucumber mutant did not respond to EOD-FR treatments, but internode length was slightly increased by positive compared with negative DIF. The results suggest that phytochrome B is required for a maximum effect of daily temperature alternations on stem elongation in cucumber. Additional GA4 reduced the difference between positive and negative DIF, but it had a minor effect only on the difference between EOD-FR and EOD red light (EOD-R) in the wild type. Plants depleted for endogenous GA by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol, did not respond at all to DIF or EOD treatments. When seedlings were treated with prohexadione-calcium, which blocks both biosynthesis and inactivation of GA4, response to applied GA4 was enhanced by EOD-FR. The present results suggest that, in cucumber, EOD-FR, and probably also positive DIF, enhances tissue sensitivity to GA4. In addition, catabolism of GA4 can be enhanced by negative DIF.

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Tomomi Eguchi, Ricardo Hernández, and Chieri Kubota

the dark period ( Fankhauser and Casal, 2004 ; Mancinelli, 1994 ; Smith, 1994 ). For example, promotion of stem elongation by low red to FR ratio during the photoperiod or by EOD-FR light was confirmed among many species ( Demotes-Mainard et al

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Po-Lung Chia and Chieri Kubota

; Decoteau et al., 1988 ; Kasperbauer and Peaslee, 1973 ). Tomato seedlings with end-of-day (EOD) FR light treatment had a greater height and leaf length than those with EOD-R light treatment ( Decoteau and Friend, 1991 ). EOD-FR lighting was also used in

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Mengzi Zhang and Erik S. Runkle

treatment and potentially show photoreversibility in at least some light-sensitive plants. The objective of this study was to investigate whether EOD FR would promote extension growth without influencing flowering of poinsettia. We also wondered whether

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Heather A. Hatt Graham and Dennis R. Decoteau

The sensitivity of shoots and roots to end-of-day (EOD) red (R) or far-red (FR) light on growth of `Sugar Baby' watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] was investigated. Plants were grown in full-strength Hoagland solution and treated for 14 days to 15 minutes EOD light in trial 1 and in half-strength Hoagland solution and treated for 10 days to EOD light in trial 2. Exposing shoots to EOD FR resulted in elongated petioles of leaves 1 to 3 (as counted from the cotyledons), internodes 1 to 3, and total stem length in both trials. Exposure to EOD FR resulted in increased stem and petiole dry mass in trial 1, whereas EOD FR resulted in increased root and leaf dry mass in trial 2. EOD FR exposure of roots increased the length of petiole 4 in trial 1. In general, shoots were more responsive than roots to the growth-regulating effects of EOD FR.

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Joan John, William Courtney, and Dennis R. Decoteau

The effects of light spectral quality on Discorea alata cv, Oriental in vitro grown plantlets were investigated. Cultured nodes were treated with red (R) or far-red (FR) light at the end of a 14 hr photoperiod. End-of-day (EOD) light treatments did not affect organogenesis. EOD FR light increased average internode lengths as compared to plantlets treated with EOD R light. The EOD FR enhancement of internode elongation was reversed by following the FR with R suggesting the involvement of phytochrome. There were no residual light effects on subsequent plantlet development from subcultured nodes or potted plantlets after EOD light treatments were terminated.

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Dennis R. Decoteau and Heather H. Friend

Phytochrome-regulated growth of watermelon [Citrulls lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Naki cv. Sugar Baby] was investigated by treating plants with brief exposures of red (R) or far-red (FR) light at the end of the daily photoperiod. Light treatments were initiated when the plants were 2 weeks old (two true-leaf stage). After 4 days of treatment, petiole lengths of leaf 1 (first leaf above the cotyledon) and leaf 2 (second leaf above the cotyledon) were longer, and the angle formed between these two petioles was more acute in plants treated with end-of-day (EOD) FR than in plants treated with EOD R light or non-EOD-treated plants (control). After 7 days of treatment, internodes 2 and 3 and petioles from leaves 1, 2, and 3 were longer from plants treated for 7 days with EOD FR light than from plants treated with EOD R light or from controls. The EOD FR light promotion of internode, petiole angle, and petiole elongation was reversible by immediately following the FR with R, implicating the involvement of phytochrome in the regulation of these growth processes of watermelon. After 21 days of treatment, most of the internodes (six of eight) from the EOD FR-treated plants were longer than the corresponding internodes from the EOD R-treated plants. Plants that were treated with EOD light for 21 days and then grown for an additional 14 days without EOD light treatments exhibited no residual EOD light effect on internode elongation (as compared to plants not exposed to EOD light). Residual EOD FR light treatment effects on elongation of petioles 1, 2, 3, and 4 were suggested for plants treated with EOD light for 21 days and then grown for 14 days without EOD treatments.

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Sandra B. Wilson and Dennis R. Decoteau

Similarities exist between the effects of phytochrome and cytokinins on plant growth and development (e.g., chloroplast development, amaranthin synthesis, seed germination). It is unclear, however, if and how these two systems interact. The coaction between phytochrome and cytokinins was investigated by using Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) cytokinin gene and treated with end-of-day (EOD) red (R) and far-red (FR) light. The ipt gene was under control of either a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (35S-plants) or an inducible, heat shock promoter (HS-plants). When treated with EOD FR light, whole plants were characterized by decreased chlorophyll concentrations and increased fresh weights. When treated with EOD R light, 35S-plants contained high concentrations of zeatin riboside (ZR) compared to plants treated with EOD FR light. When treated with EOD FR light, HS-plants contained high concentrations of ZR compared to plants treated with EOD R light. Both cytokinin responses were photoreversible. The reasons for the differences between the 35S- and HS-plant responses are not known. Results appear to implicate interactions between phytochrome and cytokinins in plant growth and development.

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Ilias F. Ilias and Nihal Rajapakse

The objective of this research was to investigate if brief exposure to end-of-the-day (EOD) red (R) or far red (FR) light can overcome the flowering delay of petunia (Petunia ×hybrida Vilm.-Andr. `Countdown Burgundy') grown under FR deficient greenhouse environments with no adverse effects on stem elongation. Plants were grown under clear, FR, and R light absorbing greenhouse films (control, AFR, and AR films, respectively) and exposed to R or FR light at the end of the photoperiod for 15 minutes. At flowering, main stem of plants grown under the AR film was about 17% longer and that of AFR film grown plants (without EOD treatment) was about 50% shorter than control plants. EOD-R light reduced stem elongation of control plants but had no effect on AFR or AR film-grown plants. EOD-FR light increased stem elongation in plants grown under AR and AFR films but the percentage increase was greater under AFR film (7%, 19%, and 64% increase in control, AR, and AFR films, respectively). However, plants that received EOD-FR light under AFR film were 25% shorter than control plants that received no EOD light. AFR film delayed flowering by 11 days but AR film had no effect. Fifteen-minute exposure to EOD-R or -FR light had no effect on flowering under control and AFR film. Although the exposure to brief EOD-FR partially increased stem elongation, it was not sufficient to accelerate flowering. Treatments to enhance flowering can cause stem elongation. Therefore, care should be taken to avoid improper crop timing, especially with long-day plants.

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Nihal C. Rajapakse, Margaret J. McMahon, and John W. Kelly

The response of `Bright Golden Anne' and `Spears' chrysanthemum plants to EOD-R or FR light was evaluated to determine the involvement of phytochrome in regulation of plant morphology under CuSO4 filters. Light transmitted through the CuSO4 filter significantly reduced height, internode length and stem dry weight of `BGA' and `Spears' chrysanthemum plants. However, the degree of response varied with the cultivar. Exposure to EOD-FR reversed the reduction of plant height, internode length and the stem dry weight caused by the light transmitted through CuSO4 filters to a level comparable with control plants. Exposure to EOD-FR did not significantly alter height and stem dry weight under control filter Exposure to EOD-R light reduced the height and stem dry weight of `BGA' plants grown under control filter but EOD-R had no effect under CuSO4 filters. In `Spears' plants, EOD-R caused stem dry weight reduction under control filters, but did not reduce stem or internode elongation. The results suggest phytochrome may be involved in controlling plant response under CuSO4 filters. However, there are evidence to indicate that an additional mechanism may be acting on stem/internode elongation.