Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Painter, VA during 2009–11. Table 2. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) concentrations (μg·cm −3 ) under virtually impermeable film (VIF) and totally impermeable film (TIF) mulch at labeled
Theodore P. McAvoy and Joshua H. Freeman
Artemio Z. Tulio* Jr., Yoshinori Ueda, Hiroyuki Yamanaka, Yoshihiro Imahori, Kazuo Chachin and Artemio Z. Tulio* Jr.
The emission of methanethiol (MT) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) from homogenate fractions of fresh and frozen broccoli tissues was analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector after incubating for 2 h at 30 °C in a water bath. Both sulfur compounds were detected in the headspace of the residue fraction of fresh broccoli but not frozen tissues. Only DMDS was formed in the filtrate and supernatant fractions of fresh tissues but their emission was also suppressed in frozen tissues. Phosphate buffer treatment reduced the amount of MT formed on the residue of fresh tissues, whereas treatment of enzyme co-factor, pyridoxal phosphate, and its substrate, S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, in the residue fraction of frozen broccoli did not induce the formation of MT except for DMDS. Both compounds were also inhibited in the residue fraction of the fresh tissues by aminooxyacetic acid, a potential inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes, indicating that these objectionable odors were produced upon the action of cysteine sulfoxide lyase. This enzyme, which yielded strong activity in the residue upon extraction with buffer containing Triton X-100, is highly likely to be a bound enzyme. Inhibition of MT and DMDS in frozen broccoli tissues is likely attributed to the retardation of the enzyme action due in part to the loss of the co-factor and its substrate, and owing to the solubility of MT and its affinity to gaseous condition.
Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan
Methanethiol (MT) is a volatile compound responsible for the unpleasant odor evolved when fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) is held under anaerobic conditions. Inductive atmospheres can develop in storage, transportation containers, or modified atmosphere packages, resulting in reduced quality. To determine if related vegetables are capable of producing MT, 12 different vegetables from the genus Brassica were cut into ready-to-eat forms. Fifty-gram samples were sealed in 500-mL glass jars and flushed with N2. After 24 h in the dark at 20 °C, headspace samples from the jars were analyzed for MT and other volatiles. Headspace concentration of MT was greatest in broccoli florets, followed by pak choi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis group) leaf blades, savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group), broccoflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group), and green and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group). Broccoli stems, kale (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group), pak choi petioles, rutabaga (Brassica napus L., Napobrassica group) root, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group) florets, Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L., Pekinensis group), and kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L., Gongylodes group) tubers produced <3% of the MT produced by broccoli florets. Green tissues appeared to have a greater capacity to produce MT than nongreen tissues. Anaerobic production of CO2 and ethanol did not relate to the vegetable's ability to produce MT. The production of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) were also induced by the anaerobic conditions. Green cabbage produced the greatest concentration of DMDS, followed by savoy cabbage and broccoli florets. Production of DMTS was similar to the pattern observed for MT, but DMDS production was not highly correlated with MT production.
José M. López-Aranda, Luis Miranda, Juan J. Medina, Carmen Soria, Berta de los Santos, Fernando Romero, Rosa M. Pérez-Jiménez, Miguel Talavera, Steve A. Fennimore and Bielinski M. Santos
, dazomet, propylene oxide, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) plus Pic, and calcium cyanamide (C-cyanamide). The combination of 1,3-D + Pic has been widely studied throughout the world for controlling fungal disease and nematodes. However, herbicides frequently need
Naohiro Kubota and Kazuyoshi Kawazu
We previously found that volatile substances in Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) and rakkyo (A. chinense) as well as garlic (A. sativum) stimulated budbreak in vines. But the active substances stimulating budbreak in Chinese chive and rakkyo have not yet been identified.
The volatile sulfur—containing substances in fresh Chinese chive and rakkyo were identified by GC—MASS. The main volatile substances in Chinese chive and rakkyo were allyl and methyl mercaptans, and dimethyl disulfide, respectively.
Cuttings witn a single bud obtained from `Kyoho' vines in dormancy were exposed to vapors of different concentrations of the three compounds for 12 or 24 hr in a desiccator, and they were kept at 25C, mounted on styrofoam plate floated in water. Diallyl disulfide, a main component in garlic, was also tested for comparison. Irrespective of concentrations and exposure periods of sulfide compounds, sprouting was greatly accelerated with diallyl disulfide. In mercaptan homologues, allyl mercaptan accelerated sprouting more effectively than in methyl mercaptan. A solution of 75% dimethyl disulfide accelerated sprouting on exposure for 12 hr, while inhibited budbreak for 24 hr.
Charles F. Forney, James P. Mattheis and Rodney K. Austin
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., ltalica Group) produces severe off-odors when it is stored under anaerobic conditions which can develop in modified atmosphere packages. The compounds responsible for these off-odors, which render the broccoli unmarketable, were produced after sealing 50 g of fresh broccoli florets in glass pint jars held at 15C. Twenty-four hours after sealing oxygen concentration dropped to around 0.5% and remained at this concentration for 6 days. Volatile compounds found in the head space of the jars were identified using gas chromatography with flame photometric and mass spectroscopic detection. Volatile compounds produced were identified as methanethiol, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, acetaldehyde, acetone, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. Methanethiol was detected 48 hours after sealing and appears through olfactory evaluation to be the primary compound responsible for the objectionable odor.
Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan
Methanethiol (MT) is a volatile compound responsible for the strong off-odor that is evolved when fresh broccoli is held under anaerobic atmospheres. Inductive atmospheres can develop in modified-atmosphere packages, resulting in reduced quality. To determine if related vegetables are capable of producing MT, 12 different vegetables from the genus Brassica were cut into ready-to-eat forms. Fifty-gram samples of these cut vegetables were sealed in 500-ml glass jars and flushed with N2. After flushing, jars were held for 24 h at 20C in the dark. Headspace samples from the jars then were analyzed for MT and other volatiles using a GC-MS> The concentration of MT was greatest in jars containing broccoli florets. Broccoli flower buds removed from florets produced 40 times more MT than peduncle and stem tissues (38.3 vs. 0.87 mmol·m–3). Headspace concentration of MT (mmol·m–3) in jars containing these different vegetables was: broccoli florets, 22.7; pak choi leaf blades, 17.8; savoy cabbage, 12.4; broccoflower, 7.5; green storage cabbage, 5.2; red cabbage, 2.7; kale, 0.81; Brussels sprouts, 0.36; pak choi petioles, 0.28; rutabaga root, 0.26; cauliflower florets, 0.18; Chinese cabbage, 0.03; and kohlrabi tubers, 0.02. In addition to MT, ethanol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide were detected in the headspace over each of the 12 vegetables. The contribution of these induced compounds to off-odor development in packaged, precut vegetables will be discussed.
Bielinski M. Santos, José Manuel López-Aranda, James P. Gilreath, Luis Miranda, Carmen Soria and Juan J. Medina
Tunnel and open field trials were conducted in two locations in Huelva, Spain, and one in Florida to determine the effect of selected methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives on strawberry yield. In Spain, the tunnel treatments were: a) nontreated control, b) MBr + chloropicrin (Pic) 50:50 at a rate of 400 kg·ha–1; c) dazomet at 400 kg·ha–1, d) 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) + Pic 65:35 at 300 kg·ha–1; e) Pic at 300 kg/ha; f) dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) + Pic 50:50 at 250 + 250 kg·ha–1; and f) propylene oxide at 550 kg·ha–1. All treatments were covered with virtually impermeable film (VIF), except the nontreated control, which was covered with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch. Dazomet was rototilled 10 cm deep, whereas the other fumigants were injected with four chisels per bed. In Florida, the open-field treatments were a) nontreated control, b) MBr + Pic 67:33 at a rate of 400 kg/ha with LDPE; c) MBr + Pic 67:33 at 310 kg·ha–1 with VIF; d) 1,3-D + Pic 65:35 at 300 kg·ha–1 with VIF; e) methyl iodide (MI) + Pic 50:50 at 230 kg·ha–1 with VIF; f) Pic at 300 kg·ha–1 with VIF; g) DMDS + Pic 50:50 at 250 + 250 kg·ha–1 with VIF; and g) propylene oxide at 500 kg·ha–1 with VIF. The fumigants were applied with three chisels per bed. In Spain, the results showed that 1,3-D + Pic, DMDS + Pic, and Pic consistently had similar marketable yields as MBr + Pic. Similar results were found in Florida, with the exception of propylene oxide, which also had equal marketable fruit weight as MBr + Pic.
Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan
Heat can induce physiological changes in plant tissues, including the inhibition of broccoli senescence. Hot water treatments at 52C for 3 or more minutes may induce off-odors in fresh broccoli. The objective of this study was to identify heat-induced volatiles that may indicate physiological injury and/or be responsible for off-odors. Heads of fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica group cv. `Paragon') were immersed in water at 25C for 10 min (control); 45C for 10, 15, or 20 min; or 52C for 1, 2, or 3 min. Following treatment broccoli was held at 20C in the dark. Volatiles in the headspace above treated broccoli were trapped on Tenax-GR 2, 24, and 72 h after treatment and analyzed on a GC-MS. Heat treatments increased the production of ethanol, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), hexenol, methyl thiocyanate, and several other unidentified compounds. Two hours after treatment, ethanol and hexenol concentrations in the headspace of all heat-treated broccoli were greater than those of the 25C/10 min controls. In the 52C/3 min-treated broccoli, headspace concentrations of ethanol, hexenol, DMDS, and methyl thiocyanate were 600-, 42-, 4-, and 4-fold greater than those of controls. After 72 h at 20C, concentrations of DMDS, DMS, and DMTS in broccoli from all six heat treatments were 10- to 200- fold, 8- to 35-fold, and 1.5- to 23- fold greater than those of controls, respectively. Concentrations of ethanol and methyl thiocyanate did not change relative to the controls during the additional 70 h at 20C. Concentrations of hexenol decreased in heat-treated broccoli during this time. The relationship of these volatiles to physiological changes and off-odor development in treated broccoli will be discussed.
Francesco Di Gioia, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Jason Hong, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Joseph Albano, Xin Zhao, Zack Black, Zhifeng Gao, Chris Wilson, John Thomas, Kelly Moore, Marilyn Swisher, Haichao Guo and Erin N. Rosskopf
Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is considered a promising sustainable alternative to chemical soil fumigation (CSF), and has been shown to be effective against soilborne diseases, plant-parasitic nematodes, and weeds in several crop production systems. Nevertheless, limited information is available on the effects of ASD on crop yield and quality. Therefore, a field study was conducted on fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in two different locations in Florida (Immokalee and Citra), to evaluate and compare the ASD and CSF performances on weed and nematodes control, and on fruit yield and quality. In Immokalee, Pic-Clor 60 (1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin) was used as the CSF, whereas in Citra, the CSF was Paldin™ [dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) + chloropicrin]. Anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments were applied using a mix of composted poultry litter (CPL) at the rate of 22 Mg·ha−1, and two rates of molasses [13.9 (ASD1) and 27.7 m3·ha−1 (ASD2)] as a carbon (C) source. In both locations, soil subjected to ASD reached highly anaerobic conditions, and cumulative soil anaerobiosis was 167% and 116% higher in ASD2 plots than in ASD1 plots, in Immokalee and Citra, respectively. In Immokalee, the CSF provided the most significant weed control, but ASD treatments also suppressed weeds enough to prevent an impact on yield. In Citra, all treatments, including the CSF, provided poor weed control relative to the Immokalee site. In both locations, the application of ASD provided a level of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) control equivalent to, or more effective than the CSF. In Immokalee, ASD2 and ASD1 plots provided 26.7% and 19.7% higher total marketable yield as compared with CSF plots, respectively. However, in Citra, total marketable yield was unaffected by soil treatments. Tomato fruit quality parameters were not influenced by soil treatments, except for fruit firmness in Immokalee, which was significantly higher in fruits from ASD treatments than in those from CSF soil. Fruit mineral content was similar or higher in ASD plots as compared with CSF. In fresh-market tomato, ASD applied using a mixture of CPL and molasses may be a sustainable alternative to CSF for maintaining or even improving marketable yield and fruit quality.