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Yusuf Ucar, Soner Kazaz, Mehmet Atilla Askin, Köksal Aydinsakir, Abdullah Kadayifci, and Ulas Senyigit

Turkey ( T.C. Tarım ve Köy İşleri Bakanlığı, 2009 ). Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is a native of the Mediterranean area, which includes Turkey ( Besemer, 1980 ; Whealy, 1992 ). Both suitable climate structure and affordable labor in this region

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Janelle E. Glady, N. Suzanne Lang, and Erik S. Runkle

Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Cinnamon Red Hots’, which is a day-neutral plant that perpetually develops flowers under most environmental conditions ( Bunt and Cockshull, 1985 ). In contrast, other perennial plants such as Coreopsis verticillata ‘Moonbeam’ do

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Liang Zheng, Zibin Xiao, and Weitang Song

Dianthus caryophyllus L., commonly known as carnation, is one of the most popular cut flowers; it ranks third after chrysanthemum and rose in the worldwide market ( Liu et al., 2018 ). Vegetative propagation by cutting is one of the main methods

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Ramon Dolcet-Sanjuan, Elisabet Clavería, Alfonso J. Rodríguez, and Marta Llaurado

Callus and shoot organogenesis were obtained from anthers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. `Manon', `Amapola', `Elsy', and `IB212', harboring mid-uninucleated microspores. Significant differences between genotypes were observed on number of responsive anthers (10.4% to 72.1%) and rescued plants per responsive anthers (1.2% to 4.8%). A modified H medium (Nitsch and Nitsch, 1969) with 20 g/L maltose and 0.25% Gelrite, supplemented with 10 μM 2,4-D and 1 μM TDZ, was most appropriate for callus induction. Plants were regenerated after subsequent subculture to the same medium, but amended with 0.1 μM TDZ. Zymogram types for aminopeptidase (AAP) in polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis proved that all 40 plants regenerated from `Amapola', `Elsy', or `IB212' where heterozygous, and consequently not originated from the microspores but from somatic tissue. Alternatively, in situ-induced parthenogenesis through pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen and in vitro embryo rescue was tested. A total of 92 embryos, including normal and no cotyledonary embryos, were rescued from 38 fruits harvested out of 70 crosses between `Scania' and `Amapola'. Embryos were rescued 21 to 28 days after pollination by culture in a modified E20A (Sauton and Vaulx, 1987) medium. Phosphogluco isomerase (PGI) and Shikimic dehydrogenase (SDH) zymograms in starch gel electrophoresis, and AAP in polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis, indicated the parthenogenic origin of three of the regenerated plants. Flow cytometry of nuclei proved the early diploidization, during in-vitro micropropagation, of the parthenogenic carnation haploid plantlets.

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Xiaohui Lin, Hongbo Li, Shenggen He, Zhenpei Pang, Shuqin Lin, and Hongmei Li

Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important ornamental plant worldwide. It is popular because of its abundant flowers, which are available in various colors, sizes, and shapes. It is cultivated mainly as a cut-flower crop ( Boxriker et al

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Xuhong Zhou, Xijun Mo, Yalian Jiang, Hao Zhang, Rongpei Yu, Lihua Wang, Jihua Wang, and Suping Qu

. thaliana , BN = Brassica napus , BR = Brassica rapa , BV = Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris , CC = Citrus clementina , CM = Cucumis melo , CR = Capsella rubella , CaS = Camelina sativa , CiS = Citrus sinensis , DC = Dianthus caryophyllus , EG

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Steven A. Altman and Theophanes Solomos

Treating `Elliott's White' cut carnations with 50 or 100 mm aminotriazole for 4 days inhibits the respiratory climacteric and significantly extends vase life. Aminotriazole induced time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of ethylene evolution and onset of the ethylene climacteric by inhibiting ACC synthase activity. Flowers treated with 50 or 100 mm aminotriazole for 2 days exhibited concentration-dependent increases in ethylene evolution, respiratory activity, ACC synthase activity, and petal ACC content in response to the application of exogenous ethylene at 10 μl·liter-1. Senescence-associated morphological changes, increased ACC synthase activity, ACC content, and ethylene evolution were completely inhibited in flowers treated for 4 days with 100 mm aminotriazole. Although treatment with 50 mm aminotriazole for 4 days did not completely inhibit components of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, no morphological or respiratory responses to the application of exogenous ethylene at 10 μl·liter-1 were observed, a result indicating that prolonged aminotriazole treatment inhibited ethylene action. Chemical names used: 3-1H-amino-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl (aminotriazole), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).

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Ria T. Leonard, Amy M. Alexander, and Terril A. Nell

exposing flowers early in the marketing chain to 20 °C for 8 h accelerated flower development of asters ( Aster ericoides ), chrysanthemum ( Dendrathema grandiflorum ), dianthus ( Dianthus caryophyllus ), and baby's breath ( Gypsophila paniculata) compared

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Sven Verlinden and William R. Woodson

High-temperature treatments can be used for disinfestation of a variety of horticultural crops. Carnation flowers were subjected to a heat treatment in order to determine if it is a viable option for disinfestation of this crop. Flowers were exposed to 45°C for 24 hr in the dark, while control flowers were held at RT for 24 hr in the dark. Subsequently, the flowers were held at RT in the light and monitored for ethylene production, an indicator of imminent floral senescence. In the heat-treated flowers, the ethylene climacteric occurred at 96 hr after the heat treatment, a delay of 12 hr when compared to the control. Peak ethylene production was decreased by 25% to 30% in heat-treated flowers. Northern blot analysis of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway genes, ACC synthase, and ACC oxidase, showed that the expression of these genes is delayed by 8 to 16 hr in heat-treated flowers. This indicates that the delay and decrease in ethylene production is at least, in part, due to a delay or reduction in the expression of these genes. Further investigation revealed a decreased responsiveness of the petals to ethylene. Petals from heat-treated and control flowers were exposed to 1 ppm ethylene for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 32 hr. The heat-treated petals again showed a delay and a decrease in maximum ethylene production after exposure to ethylene. A delay in expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase was also observed. The beneficial effects of exposing carnation flowers to high temperatures, a delay in ethylene production, and reduced responsiveness to ethylene, suggest that heat treatments could be used for disinfestation of this crop.

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Sven Verlinden and William R. Woodson

Ethylene plays a key regulatory role in carnation flower senescence. Flower senescence is associated with a significant increase in ethylene production. Continued perception of this ethylene by the flower is necessary to sustain the climacteric rise in ethylene and the expression of senescence related genes associated with senescence. In addition, increased sensitivity by the flower to ethylene during development and senescence has been observed. In order to study the perception of ethylene at the molecular level, an ethylene receptor gene was cloned from carnation petals. The clone, CARETR, shows 68% homology at the nucleic acid level with the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gene, ETR1. Northern blot analysis revealed that CARETR is present as a low abundant transcript in petals, styles, and ovaries. Further analysis also showed that CARETR is upregulated during flower senescence. Treatment with the ethylene action inhibitor norbornadiene (NBD) resulted in decreased levels of CARETR transcripts. These data suggest that CARETR plays a role in the increased sensitivity of carnation flowers to ethylene during flower development and is involved in staging the rapid and orchestrated death of the flower.