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Yuko Yoshizawa, Kenji Sakurai, Satoru Kawaii, Masayoshi Asari, Junichi Soejima, and Noboru Murofushi

Aqueous ethanol extracts prepared from 19 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars were studied to explore their antiproliferative activity. Half of them showed strong inhibition on proliferation of human leukemic HL-60 cells, while the others were weak. Total polyphenols, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and total anthocyanins were measured and the results indicated that the antiproliferative activity was more strongly correlated to the polyphenols and radical scavenging activity than to the anthocyanin content. Several polyphenols in `Jonathan' were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Among those compounds found during HPLC, catechin and epicatechin seemed partially responsible for HL-60 antiproliferation. A careful examination on parentage of the apple cultivars tested revealed that `Jonathan' and its progeny showed high antiproliferation toward HL-60. This is the first observation about the relationship between antiproliferative activity and parentage of apples, and the information would be useful to create new apple cultivars that posses more anticancer potential.

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Abu Shamim Mohammad Nahiyan and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

antioxidative enzyme activities and antioxidative substances were carried out according to the methods of Beauchamp and Fridovich (1971) (SOD), Wu et al. (2006) (APX), Burits and Bucar (2000) (DPPH radical scavenging activity), Folin and Denis (1915

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Ming-Wei S. Kao, Floyd Woods, William A. Dozier, Robert C. Ebel, Chang Y. Lee, and Jun Bae Jee

The health status of Alabama's population ranks above the national average with respect to the prevalence of poor overall health indicators. Consumer knowledge of the health benefits of consumption of fresh fruit is lacking. The compositional and nutritional qualities of fruit are highly variable among states with different climate, soil, and other environmental conditions. Compositional and nutritional data of fresh fruit that reflect Alabama growing conditions is limited. Commercially fully ripened kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa cvs. Fitzgerald and Hayward) were compared for fruit quality (pH, TA, °Brix, °Brix/TA, and soluble sugars), and antioxidant properties; Vitamin C (reduced, oxidized, and total), Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, and flavonoids. In general, `Fitzgerald' ranked higher in overall fruit quality and antioxidant properties when compared to `Hayward'.

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Ena Akamatsu, Takanori Kai, Hideaki Hirabaru, Chizuko Yukizaki, Miho Sakai, Hirofumi Uto, Hirohito Tsubouchi, and Hisato Kunitake

Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) fruits contain high concentrations of polyphenols such as anthocyanin. It is well known that polyphenols have antioxidant activity, so it is likely that the fruit has a possible preventative effect against several diseases like cancer. However, only a few reports so far have studied the human health benefits of the leaves. In this study, the antioxidant activity and antiviral effects of blueberry leaves were investigated. The leaves of three groups of blueberry, northern highbush blueberry (NHB), southern highbush blueberry (SHB), and rabbiteye blueberry (REB), were examined. These leaves were harvested in July and extracted with 80% ethanol. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity) and antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus using the replicon cell assay (Lomann et al., 1999). The antioxidant activity showed significant variability between cultivars and species, with REB having about two times the activity of NHB and SHB. Antiviral activity was observed in the extracts of the leaves and the fruit, and the activity of the leaves was higher than that of the fruit. Among the cultivars and species evaluated, the antiviral activity of REB was higher than that of NHB and SHB. In addition, we discovered a positive correlation (r=0.68) between the antioxidant activity and the antiviral activity, using the leaves of hybrid seedlings of REB. Therefore, it is possible to speculate that the antiviral activity bears some relation to the antioxidant activity.

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Shiow Wang and Ross Penhallegon

Lingonberries have been shown to contain high antioxidant activity. Fruit from different cultivars of lingonberry (Vacciniumvitis-idaea L) were evaluated for fruit quality, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin and phenolic contents. The fruit soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acids (TA), antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin and phenolic contents varied with cultivars. The SSC ranged from 12.9% to 16.9%, the TA ranged from 0.31% to 0.41% and the ratios of SSC/TA ranged from 35.37 to 51.21. Lingonberries contain potent free radical scavenging activities for DPPH·, ROO·, ·OH and O .- 2 radicals. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values from acetone extraction of lingonberries ranged from 58.5–223.6 μmol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fresh berries. The ED50 values for DPPH-radical scavenging ranged from 5.91–11.77 mg fresh weight. The DPPH-radical scavenging activity correlated with ORAC values with a R 2 of 0.8009. ESR spectrum showed that 50 mg·mL-1 of lingonberry extract decreased ·OH radicals by 83% and O .- 2 radicals by 99%. Cyanidin 3-galactoside was the most dominant anthocyanin and contributed the most antioxidant activity in lingonberries. The antioxidant properties of lingonberries may play an important role in protecting cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

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Rumana Yeasmin, Stephen P. Bonser, Satoru Motoki, and Eiji Nishihara

methods of Nahiyan and Matsubara (2012) (SOD), and Wu et al. (2006) (APX) (DPPH radical scavenging activity), respectively. Briefly, the total SOD activity was measured by the ability of SOD to inhibit the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT

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Ah-Chiou Lee, Fang-Shin Liao, and Hsiao-Feng Lo

development: Theory and technique. Macmillan, New York, NY Liu, X. Ardo, S. Bunning, M. Parry, J. Zhou, K. Stushnoff, C. Stoniker, F. Yu, L. Kendall, P. 2007 Total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) grown in

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Zhong-Hua Bian, Rui-Feng Cheng, Qi-Chang Yang, Jun Wang, and Chungui Lu

. Phytochemical concentration and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. Table 4 showed that the phytochemical concentrations in the lettuce leaves were substantially affected by CL treatment. The total phenolic compounds and DPPH radical scavenging activity

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Juran C. Goyali, Abir U. Igamberdiev, and Samir C. Debnath

), anthocyanins ( E , F ) and proanthocyanidins ( G , H ), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ( I , J ) in fruits of blueberry wild clone QB 9C and cultivar Fundy, obtained by softwood cutting (SC) (light gray bars) and tissue

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Attila Hegedűs, Emőke Balogh, Rita Engel, Béla Zoltan Sipos, János Papp, Anna Blázovics, and Éva Stefanovits-Bányai

-s exposure and expressed in relative light unit (RLU %). Fruit juice samples were diluted 100-fold; and 0.050 mL was added to the luminol solution and vortexed (10 s) before analysis. The measurement of DPPH radical-scavenging activity was carried