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Qamar Uz Zaman, Arnold Walter Schumann, and David Charles Percival

and mapping of topography in wild blueberry fields. The widespread availability of accurate DGPS, low-cost and reliable sensors such as accelerometers since 2000, and the rapid evolution of laptop computing power offers new opportunities for field

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Ronnie W. Heiniger

New technologies such as differential global positioning systems (DGPS) and geographical information systems (GIS) are making it possible to manage variability in soil properties and the microenvironment within a field. By providing information about where variability occurs and the patterns that exist in crop and soil properties, DGPS and GIS technologies have the potential of improving crop management practices. Yield monitoring systems linked to DGPS receivers are available for several types of horticultural crops and can be used in variety selection and/or improving crop management. Precision soil sampling and remote sensing technologies can be used to scout for infestations of insects, diseases, or weeds, to determine the distribution of soil nutrients, and to monitor produce quality by measuring crop vigor. Combined with variable rate application systems, precision soil sampling and remote sensing can help direct fertilizer, herbicide, pesticide, and/or fungicide applications to only those regions of the field that require soil amendments or are above threshold levels. This could result in less chemical use and improved crop performance. As with any information driven system, the data must be accurate, inexpensive to collect, and, most importantly, must become part of a decision process that results in improvements in crop yield, productivity, and/or environmental stewardship.

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Qi Zhang, Kevin Rue, and Jeanna Mueller

, was counted and recorded three times weekly for 4 weeks ( McCarty and Dudeck, 1993 ) in each experiment. FGP, representing total germination rate over a 4-week period, and DGP, representing germination rate over time, were calculated following the

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James L. Glancey and W. Edwin Kee

Production and harvesting systems for processing vegetables have been highly mechanized, however, field efficiencies are generally low, and high field losses and fruit damage continue to limit profits for several crops. By comparison, the number of fresh market crops currently machine harvested is small, and research to develop new harvesting technology for these crops is limited. Current mechanization research includes improvements to existing production systems, development of harvesters for crops currently hand-harvested, and the integration of new technologies into current (and future) production systems. Mechanical harvester-based production systems are evolving that reduce field losses and fruit damage, improve recovery, and decrease the foreign materials in the harvested product. However, improved cultural production systems and crop varieties that are adapted for once-over machine harvest are needed. An integrated approach in which crop characteristics along with planting, cultivating, and harvesting techniques are considered will be necessary to develop profitable and highly efficient alternatives to hand-harvest production. The integration of new technologies including differential global positioning systems (DGPS), automatic machine guidance, and computer-based vision systems offers significant performance benefits, and is a substantial component of current vegetable production and harvesting research in the U.S. In time, as the costs of these technologies decline, commercial adoption of these new methods is expected to increase.

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Ray R. Hollist, Ronald H. Campbell, and Robert Campbell

Over the past few years, grain yield monitors have gained a significant hold in the market place. While the largest share of production agriculture acres are devoted to producing grain crops, high-value crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, sugarbeets, onions, and many others will benefit considerably by application of site-specific technology. Yield mapping is one of the tools that utilizes GPS technology and allows us to visualize our farms as an array of tiny parcels instead of one uniform aggregate. Yield mapping is simple, accurate measurement of yield at precise positions, the data from which is used to give us a visual report card of each parcel in that field. While yield mapping will not provide the entire basis of site-specific agriculture management, it begins to give a picture of how understanding spatial variation will revolutionize management of high-value crop production acres. The tools necessary to make yield measurements are now available. When combined with Differential GPS, the yield map becomes a powerful tool to identify atypical areas in the field. Without DGPS the process of identifying and treating areas within a field individually would be a nearly impossible task, and certainly cost-prohibitive. Identification of the spatial distribution of yield will contribute significantly to a grower's ability to make informed management decisions.

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Arnold W. Schumann

Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receiver. Mobile computing and data storage. Mobile or handheld computers are indispensible for recording field observations during scouting, leaf sampling, or soil surveying. When used in conjunction with GPS and

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Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, María del Pilar Vera-Hoyos, Natalia Jiménez-Beltrán, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

. Magister Diss Oliveira, D.G.P. Pauli, G. Mascarin, G.M. Delalibera, I. 2015 A protocol for determination of conidial viability of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae from commercial products J. Microbiol. Methods 119

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Yiannis G. Ampatzidis and Matthew D. Whiting

. Electron. Agr. 63 65 72 Whitney, J.D. Ling, Q. Wheaton, T.A. Miller, W.M. 1999 A DGPS yield monitoring system for Florida citrus Appl. Eng. Agr. 17 115 119 Whiting, M.D. Lang, G.A. Ophardt, D. 2005 Rootstock and training system affect sweet cherry growth

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M. Teresa Gómez-Casero, Francisca López-Granados, José M. Peña-Barragán, Montserrat Jurado-Expósito, Luis García-Torres, and Ricardo Fernández-Escobar

). A telescopic pole ( Fig. 1 ) was used for positioning the spectroradiometer at 80 to 100 cm above the tree canopy. In addition, each olive tree was georeferenced using the submeter differential DGPS TRIMBLE PRO-XRS (Trimble, Sunnyvale, CA) provided