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Nuria Pascual-Seva, Alberto San Bautista, Salvador V. López-Galarza, José V. Maroto, and Bernardo Pascual

Cyperus esculentus L. can be found wild, weedy, or in a cultivated state. It is an abundant weed in all mild and tropical zones and is considered one of the most important and hard-to-control weeds worldwide, although it is not as noxious as

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J.P. Morales-Payan, W.M. Stall, D.G. Shilling, J.A. Dusky, and T.A. Bewick

Field trials were conducted in Gainesville, Fla., to determine the influence of nitrogen fertilization on the interference effect of purple or yellow nutsedge on the yield of fresh tomato. Nitrogen (N) rates of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 kg·ha–1 were applied broadcast to the soil. Before transplanting, 1-m-wide soil beds were covered with plastic and fumigated with methyl bromide to suppress the growth on undesired weeds. Nutsedge-free and purple or yellow nutsedge-infested tomato plots were separately established. `Solar Set' tomatoes were transplanted in the middle of the soil beds, 50 cm apart in a single row. In nutsedge-infested plots, weed densities known to cause significant yield reduction in tomato (100 purple nutsedge plants/m2 and 50 yellow nutsedge plants/m2) were uniformly established perforating the plastic and transplanting viable tubers in the perforations. Purple and yellow nutsedge tubers were transplanted the same day as tomatoes and were allowed to interfere during the whole crop season. Results indicate that N rates had a significant effect on tomato fruit yield in both nutsedge-free and nutsedge-infested treatments. The presence of either purple or yellow nutsedge significantly reduced the fruit yield of tomato at all N rates. As N rates increased, tomato fruit yield reduction caused by the interference of either nutsedge species also increased. When yellow nutsedge was allowed to interfere with tomato, fruit yield loss was as low as 18% at 50 kg N/ha and as high as 42% at 350 kg N/ha. In purple nutsedge-infested tomato, fruit yield reductions ranged from 10% at 50 kg N/ha to 27% at 350 kg N/ha. N effects on nutsedge-free and nutsedge-infested tomato yields were described by quadratic equations, with maximum tomato fruit yield values being reached between 200 and 250 kg N/ha in both nutsedge-free and nutsedge-infested treatments.

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Yan Chen, Ronald E. Strahan, and Regina P. Bracy

of EPTC: Simulation and measurement J. Environ. Qual. 25 169 177 10.2134/jeq1996.00472425002500010022x Banks, P.A. 1983 Yellow nutsedge ( Cyperus esculentus ) control, regrowth, and tuber production as affected by herbicides Weed Sci. 31 419 422 10

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Gursewak Singh, William Patrick Wechter, Bhupinder Singh Farmaha, and Matthew Cutulle

and cause significant yield losses ( Chase et al., 1998 ; Patterson, 1998 ). Yellow nutsedge ( Cyperus esculentus ) is one of most widespread and problematic weed species in vegetable crops in the United States ( Van Wychen, 2019 ; Webster, 2010

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P. A. Stewart, R. E. Talbert, and C. J. Wallinder

Abstract

Preliminary greenhouse and field experiments showed that alachlor [2-chloro-2’,6’-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide] and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] were noninjurious to gladiolus (Gladiolus × hortulanus) and had potential for control of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.). In subsequent field experiments both herbicides at 2.2 and 4.5 kg a.i./ha preplant-incorporated gave good nutsedge control for 6 weeks. When alachlor and metolachlor at 2.2 and 4.5 kg/ha preplant-incorporated were repeated at 6 weeks, nutsedge control was extended for longer than 3 months. Little or no injury resulted from either herbicide applied once or repeated. Neither herbicide nor application method affected gladiolus height or flower production.

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Bielinski M. Santos, James P. Gilreath, Camille E. Esmel, and Myriam N. Siham

Field trials were conducted to determine the effect of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (C. rotundus) time of establishment on their distance of influence on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum). A single seedling of each weed species was transplanted 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after transplanting (WAT) bell pepper. Each weed was separately established in the center of plots within double rows of bell peppers. Crop height and yield were determined from bell pepper plants located at 6, 13.4, 24.7, and 36.5 inches away from each weed. Bell pepper height was unaffected by weed species, time of establishment, or the interaction between these factors. Marketable yield data indicate that yellow nutsedge was more aggressive than purple nutsedge interfering with bell pepper. When yellow nutsedge was established at 1 WAT, bell pepper yield reduction was between 57% and 32% for plants at 6 and 13.4 inches away from the weed respectively, which represents a density of ≈0.14 plant/ft2. One purple nutsedge plant growing since 1 WAT at 6 inches along the row from two bell pepper plants (0.43 plant/ft2) produced a yield reduction of 31%. These results indicate that low nutsedge densities, which are commonly believed to be unimportant, can cause significant bell pepper yield reductions.

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Charles L. Webber III, Merritt J. Taylor, and James W. Shrefler

Squash (Cucurbita pepo) producers could benefit from additional herbicide options that are safe to the crop and provide effective weed control. Research was conducted in southeastern Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of pelargonic acid (PA) on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and squash yields. The experiment included PA applied unshielded postdirected at 5, 10, and 15 lb/acre, plus an untreated weedy control and an untreated weed-free control. ‘Enterprise’ yellow squash was direct-seeded in single rows into raised beds. Weeds included smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum), cutleaf groundcherry (Physalis angulata), spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus), and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Pelargonic acid was applied each year in mid-July and then reapplied 8 days later. The maximum smooth crabgrass control (98%), broadleaf weed control (94%), and yellow nutsedge control (41%) was observed with the 15-lb/acre PA treatment at 9 days after initial spray treatment (DAIT), 1 day after sequential treatment (1 DAST). Pelargonic acid at 15 lb/acre provided equal or slightly greater smooth crabgrass and broadleaf (cutleaf groundcherry and spiny amaranth) control compared with the 10-lb/acre application, and consistently greater control than the 5-lb/acre rate and the weedy control. Pelargonic acid was less effective at controlling yellow nutsedge than smooth crabgrass and broadleaf weeds. Yellow nutsedge control peaked at 9 DAIT (1 DAST) with 10-lb/acre PA (41%). As the rate of PA increased from 5 to 15 lb/acre, yellow nutsedge control also increased significantly for all observation dates, except for 28 DAIT. Increasing the PA application rate increased the crop injury rating at 1 and 3 days after each application (1 and 3 DAIT, 1 and 3 DAST). Maximum squash injury occurred for each application rate at 9 DAIT (1 DAST) with 4.4%, 8.0%, and 12.5% injury for PA rates 5, 10, and 15 lb/acre, respectively. The 10-lb/acre PA treatment produced the highest squash yields (kilograms per hectare) and fruit number (fruit per hectare) compared with either the 5- or 15-lb/acre rates, and equivalent yields and fruit number as the hand-weeded weed-free treatment. The 10-lb/acre PA rate applied in a timely sequential application has the potential of providing good weed control with minimal crop injury resulting in yields equivalent to weed-free hand-weeding conditions.

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Charles L. Webber III, Merritt J. Taylor, and James W. Shrefler

Pepper (Capsicum annuum) producers would benefit from additional herbicide options that are safe to the crop and provide effective weed control. Research was conducted in southeastern Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of pelargonic acid on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and pepper yields. The experiment included pelargonic acid applied unshielded postdirected at 5, 10, and 15 lb/acre, plus an untreated weedy control and an untreated weed-free control. ‘Jupiter’ sweet bell pepper, a tobacco mosaic virus-resistant sweet pepper with a 70-day maturity, was transplanted into single rows on 3-ft centered raised beds with 18 inches between plants (9680 plants/acre) on 28 May 2010 and 27 May 2011, respectively. Weeds included smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum), cutleaf groundcherry (Physalis angulata), spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus), and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Pelargonic acid was applied postdirected each year in mid-June and then reapplied 8 days later. The 15-lb/acre pelargonic acid treatment resulted in the maximum smooth crabgrass control (56%) and broadleaf weed control (66%) at 1 day after the initial spray treatment (DAIT), and 33% yellow nutsedge control at 3 DAIT. Pelargonic acid at 15 lb/acre provided equal or slightly greater smooth crabgrass and broadleaf (cutleaf groundcherry and spiny amaranth) control compared with the 10-lb/acre application, and consistently greater control than the 5-lb/acre rate and the weedy control. Pelargonic acid was less effective at controlling yellow nutsedge than smooth crabgrass and broadleaf weeds. As the rate of pelargonic acid increased from 5 to 15 lb/acre, yellow nutsedge control also increased significantly for all observation dates. Increasing the pelargonic acid application rate increased the crop injury rating. The maximum crop injury occurred for each application rate at 1 DAIT with 7%, 8.0%, and 13.8% injury for pelargonic acid rates 5, 10, and 15 lb/acre, respectively. There was little or no new crop injury after the second postdirected application of pelargonic acid and crop injury following 3 DAIT for application rates was 2% or less. Only the 15-lb/acre pelargonic acid application produced greater fruit per hectare (4784 fruit/ha) and yields (58.65 kg·ha−1) than the weedy control (1196 fruit/ha and 19.59 kg·ha−1). The weed-free yields (7176 fruit/ha, 178.11 kg·ha−1, and 24.82 g/fruit) were significantly greater than all pelargonic acid treatments and the weedy control. Pelargonic acid provided unsatisfactory weed control for all rates and did not significantly benefit from the sequential applications. The authors suggest the pelargonic acid be applied to smaller weeds to increase the weed control to acceptable levels (>80%).

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Evan Elford, Jim Todd, Peter White, Rachel Riddle, John O’Sullivan, and Rene Van Acker

. Akinwande, F. Aina, D. Adeyeye, S. 2017 Production and acceptability of chinchin snack made from wheat and tigernut ( Cyperus esculentus ) flour Cogent Food Agr. 3 1 1282185 10.1080/23311932.2017.1282185 Agbabiaka, L.A. Madubuike, F.N. Ekenyem, B.U. Esonu, B

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Russell W. Wallace and John C. Hodges

; Scott and Smith, 2006 ). Yellow nutsedge ( Cyperus esculentus ) and purple nutsedge ( C. rotundus ) continue to be serious problems in agronomic and nursery crops throughout the southern U.S., not only through weed competition but also through the