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Tilin Fang, Yanqi Wu, Shiva Makaju, Todd Tribble, Dennis L. Martin, and Justin Q. Moss

dehydration of bermudagrass ( Cynodon sp.) Theor. Appl. Genet. 103 297 306 Hanna, W.W. Burton, G.W. Johnson, A.W. 1990 Registration of ‘Tifton 10’ turf bermudagrass Crop Sci. 30 1355 1356 Harris-Shultz, K.R. Schwartz, B.M. Brady, J.A. 2011 Identification of

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Kemin Su, Justin Q. Moss, Guolong Zhang, Dennis L. Martin, and Yanqi Wu

Drought stress is a major limiting factor for warm-season turfgrass growth during the summer in the U.S. transition zone. Genotypic variation in drought resistance exists among bermudagrasses (Cynodon sp.), but the mechanisms of drought resistance are poorly understood. Our objectives were to investigate physiological changes in three bermudagrass cultivars under a well-watered condition and drought stress. to determine expression differences in soluble protein and dehydrin of the three cultivars under well-watered and drought stress conditions, and to identify the association between dehydrin proteins and drought tolerance. Grasses included a high drought-resistant cultivar, Celebration, a low drought-resistant cultivar, Premier, and a newly released cultivar, Latitude 36. In both well-watered and drought treatments, ‘Latitude 36’ had the highest visual quality and lower or medium electrolyte leakage among three cultivars. In the drought treatment, 16- and 23-kDa dehydrin proteins were observed in ‘Latitude 36’ but not in ‘Celebration’ or ‘Premier’. Our results indicate that the 16- and 23-kDa dehydrin expressions could be associated with drought tolerance and contribute to drought tolerance in bermudagrass.

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James J. Camberato and S. Bruce Martin

Bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) greens are overseeded annually with rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.) in the coastal southeastern United States, where irrigation water is often saline. Salinity may slow seed germination and delay turf establishment. Cultivar and seed lot differences in sensitivity to salinity may be substantial. Our objective was to determine the effects of salinity on germination of commercially available rough bluegrass cultivars and seed lots. To accomplish this, we examined the effects of salinity (0, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.0 dS·m-1 established with NaCl in deionized water) on germination of 33 cultivars/seed lots of rough bluegrass in vitro. Fifty seeds of each cultivar/seed lot were placed on pre-moistened germination paper in petri dishes, sealed with parafilm, and placed in growth chambers with 12-hours light/12-hours dark at 20/10 °C, respectively. Germination was scored from 4 to 25 days after seed placement. Rough bluegrass germination rate varied among cultivars/seed lots, ranging from less than three seeds/day to nearly seven seeds/day. Salinity slowed rough bluegrass germination rate from about six seeds/day at 0 dS·m-1 to five seeds/day at 5 dS·m-1. Increasing salinity reduced early germination of some cultivar/seed lots more than that of others. Impact was substantial in three cultivar/seed lots, where early germination at 5.0 dS·m-1 was less than 15% of that at 0 dS·m-1. For most cultivar/seed lots, the reduction in early germination with salinity at 5.0 dS·m-1 was about 50% of that at 0 dS·m-1. Final germination was reduced only 3% by increasing salinity. In view of differences in germination rate and response to salinity among seed lots of rough bluegrass cultivars, we suggest the planting of multiple cultivars and seed lots of rough bluegrass to insure rapid establishment.

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Bo Xiao and David Jespersen

Turfgrasses have varying tolerance to waterlogging conditions. The objective of this study was to identify important root traits and physiological responses to waterlogging stress in seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) and bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). After being exposed to waterlogging conditions for 28 days, turf quality, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance (g S), and root fresh weight were significantly decreased in bermudagrass, and root lipid peroxidation was significantly increased. However, seashore paspalum was found to be more tolerant to waterlogging conditions and changes in turf quality, photosynthesis, or lipid peroxidation were not seen. The waterlogging treatments increased specific root length (SRL), surface area, and volume and decreased root respiration and diameter to a greater extent in seashore paspalum compared with bermudagrass. Under waterlogging conditions, root aerenchyma formation was found in both seashore paspalum and bermudagrass, but to a greater extent in seashore paspalum. Both grasses exhibited significant increases in root water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) but to a lesser extent in seashore paspalum than in bermudagrass. Shoot WSC remained unchanged in seashore paspalum but was significantly increased in bermudagrass. These results indicate greater root morphological changes such as root volume, SRL, and root porosity, as well as lower root respiration may be important contributors to waterlogging tolerance for seashore paspalum.

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S.K. Braman, R.R. Duncan, W.W. Hanna, and W.G. Hudson

Bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) and paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) genotypes were evaluated in laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments for potential resistance to the common turfgrass pests, tawny mole cricket (Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder) and southern mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-tos). Potential resistance among 21 seashore paspalums to both insects in an environmental chamber at 27 °C, 85% relative humidity, and 15 hours light/9 hours dark) revealed that Glenn Oaks `Adalayd' was least tolerant of cricket injury, while 561-79, HI-1, and `Excalibur' were most tolerant. Nymphal survival was not influenced by turfgrass type. Plant selections that maintained the highest percentage of their normal growth after 4 weeks of feeding by tawny mole crickets over three separate greenhouse trials were 561-79, HI-1, HI-2, PI-509018, `Excalibur', SIPV-1 paspalums, and `Tifeagle' and `Tifsport' bermudagrasses. Although none of the tested genotypes was highly resistant to tawny mole cricket injury, `TifSport' bermudagrass and 561-79 (Argentine) seashore paspalum were most tolerant.

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M.L. Elliott

The growth responses of 10 Rhizoctonia zeae isolates, obtained from turfgrasses in Florida and Ohio, to four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) and seven fungicides at four concentrations (0, 1, 10 and 100 μg·mL-1 a.i.) were compared. Greenhouse pathogenicity tests were conducted using hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy]. Optimal temperature for growth for all isolates was 30 °C. Growth of R. zeae isolates from both geographic locations was severely limited (>75%) at 20 °C. All R. zeae isolates were insensitive to the benzimidazole fungicides, benomyl and thiophanate methyl. Their sensitivities to iprodione, mancozeb, and quinotzene fungicides were similar. The Florida isolates were more sensitive to chlorothalonil, and the Ohio isolates to thiram. All isolates were pathogenic to hybrid bermudagrass. Chemical names used: methyl 1-(butylcarbamoly)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate (benomyl); dimethyl 4,4′-O-phenylene bis(3-thioallophanate) (thiophanate methyl); pentachloronitrobenzene (quintozene); 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidinecarboxamide (iprodione); tetrachloroisophtalonitrile (chlorothalonil); tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram); manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (mancozeb).

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Chunhua Liu, James J. Camberato, S. Bruce Martin, and Amy V. Turner

Rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.) is being utilized more frequently to overseed bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] putting greens and rapid seed germination is necessary for successful establishment. Cultivar and seed lot differences in germination rate and sensitivity to cold may exist. Germination of 10 rough bluegrass cultivars/seed lots was examined in growth chambers at 12-hour day/12-hour night temperatures of 25/15, 20/10, 15/5, and 10/0 °C, and on a bermudagrass putting green at three overseeding dates. Differences in germination among cultivars and seed lots were minimal at 25/15 or 20/10 °C, but substantial at lower temperatures. When seeded on the bermudagrass putting green, differences in germination among cultivars/seed lots were greater at the last seeding date (average daily max./min. of 16/2.7 °C), than at the first seeding dates (average daily max./min. of 21/6.1 °C). Use of blends of several cultivars or seed lots is suggested to ensure the successful establishment of rough bluegrass when overseeding at low temperatures.

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R.N. Carrow and B.J. Johnson

A turfgrass wear injury study was conducted at Griffin, Ga., on `Tifway' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) using two golf car tires and three golf car types driven in a semicircular pattern to deliver 85 passes over the tread path plot area. Wear injury for the 14 days after wear was applied was assessed by visual quality, percent green coverage, leaf bruising, and verdure. Golf tire × car interactions occurred, but more wear occurred with the low pressure (48 × 103 Pa), dimpled tread tire with flexible sidewalls than the commonly used bias ply (4-ply), V-shaped tread tire with more rigid sidewalls. Significant differences in wear damage occurred for golf car type but were influenced by tire design. Thus, selection of golf car tire and golf car type can influence the degree of wear injury on turfgrass sites.

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Charles H. Peacock and Paul F. Daniel

Initial release of N from waste materials used as natural organic N carriers for turfgrass may be slow due to the need for microbial degradation. In a greenhouse study, `Rebel' tall fescue (Festucau arundinacea Schreb.) and `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] growth response to a natural organic fertilizer (Turf Restore) amended or not amended with a soil-derived microbiological inoculum were compared with soluble urea using sterilized and nonsterilized soil. No interactions of soil sterilization and fertilizers were noted at 19 days after treatment (DAT). Urea fertilizer increased tall fescue growth rates by 68% in the nonsterilized soil and 126% in the sterilized soil compared to rates for turf grown with inoculated Turf Restore. Nitrogen uptake rate was 419% higher with urea-fertilized turf in the sterilized soil than for turf fertilized with inoculated Turf Restore. Soil sterilization at 33 DAT no longer affected turf response, but turf growth rate was 133% higher and N uptake 353% higher with urea fertilization than with inoculated Turf Restore. Infection of the plants with Rhizoctonia spp. at 72 DAT was unaffected by fertilizer treatments. Bermudagrass response was similar to that of tall fescue. Growth rate was 67% and N uptake 51% higher with urea than with Turf Restore through 17 DAT, regardless of inoculant addition. Amendment of the natural organic fertilizer Turf Restore with a soil-derived biological inoculant did not enhance turf growth rate or N uptake nor impact infection with Rhizoctonia spp.

Open access

Lakshmy Gopinath, Dennis L. Martin, Justin Quetone Moss, Yanqi Wu, Shuhao Yu, and James R. Underwood

and 5 had the best handling quality. Bermudagrass ( Cynodon sp.) is the most widely adapted warm-season turfgrass, especially in the U.S. transition zone. Common bermudagrass ( C. dactylon) and african bermudagrass ( C. transvaalensis ) and their