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Jerneja Jakopič, Franci Štampar, and Robert Veberič

red colors are produced by cyanidin glycosides copigmented with flavonols and other compounds ( Lancaster, 1992 ). Apple fruit is known to be rich in flavonoid compounds such as anthocyanins, dihydrochalcones, quarcetin 3-glycosides, catechin, and

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Ninghang Wang, Chao Zhang, Sainan Bian, Pengjie Chang, Lingjuan Xuan, Lijie Fan, Qin Yu, Zhigao Liu, Cuihua Gu, Shouzhou Zhang, Yaling Wang, and Yamei Shen

et al., 2017 ; Tai et al., 2014 ). In previous research, only one type of anthocyanin, cyanidin 3- O -glucoside chloride, was identified in Magnolia sprengeri , which was found to be the main pigment in this purple-flowered phenotype ( Shi et al

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Mustafa Ozgen, Faith J. Wyzgoski, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr, Aparna Gazula, A. Raymond Miller, Joseph C. Scheerens, R. Neil Reese, and Shawn R. Wright

cycling and/or curtail cell proliferation in premalignant and malignant human oral cell lines. Detailed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) subfractionation of black raspberry ethanol and water extracts indicated cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3

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Valentina Schmitzer, Robert Veberic, Gregor Osterc, and Franci Stampar

anthocyanins by the use of a calibration curve of cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. Anthocyanins were further identified using a mass spectrometer (LCQ Deca XP MAX; Thermo Scientific) with an electroscopy interface operating in positive ion mode using MS 2 scanning

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Ni Jia, Qing-Yan Shu, Dan-Hua Wang, Liang-Sheng Wang, Zheng-An Liu, Hong-Xu Ren, Yan-Jun Xu, Dai-Ke Tian, and Kenneth Michael Tilt

-glucoside (Pn3G5G), pelargonidin-3,5-di- O -glucoside (Pg3G5G), cyanidin-3,5-di- O -glucoside (Cy3G5G), peonidin-3- O -glucoside (Pn3G), cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, and pelargonidin-3- O -glucoside (Pg3G), detected were found to be identical with those of tree

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Patrick J. Conner and Dan MacLean

, pelargonidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and delphinidin ( He et al., 2010 ). Blueness is enhanced with an increase of free hydroxyl groups, whereas redness intensifies with the raising of the methylation of the hydroxyl groups; thus, malvidin is the reddest

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Jessica G. Barb, Dennis J. Werner, and Robert J. Griesbach

, magenta, red, blue, and violet. Flavonoids can be divided into two groups: copigments (e.g., flavanones, flavones, and chalcones) and anthocyanins (e.g., petunidin, pelargonidin, and cyanidin; Griesbach, 2005 ; Griesbach and Batdorf, 1995 ). Anthocyanins

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Simona Proietti, Stefano Moscatello, Fiorella Villani, Federica Mecucci, Robert P. Walker, Franco Famiani, and Alberto Battistelli

of 0.7 mL·min −1 . The gradient was formed with solution B at 18% from 0 to 1 min, 25% from 1 to 5 min, 50% from 5 to 15 min, and at 18% from 15 to 20 min. Anthocyanins in the extracts were identified using cyanidin 3-sophoroside, cyanidin 3

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Charles R. Brown, David Culley, Meredith Bonierbale, and Walter Amorós

method ( Giusti and Wrolstad, 2001 ). Pigment content was calculated as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents using an extinction coefficient of 26,900 L·cm −1 ·mol −1 and molecular weight (MW) of 449.2 g·mol −1 . Carotenoid (lipophilic) extraction and

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Shiow Y. Wang and Kim S. Lewers

much lower levels of cyanidin-based anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside–succinate, than pelargonidin-based anthocyanins ( Gil et al., 1997 ; Wang and Zheng, 2001 ). These anthocyanin compounds have shown protection against